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Chapter 13 Sec 2


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What are guilds?
Business associations formed by merchants and artisans.
Need for education
As towns gew, needed educated officials. Needed lawyers. Students met away from monasteries (where schools usually were) and formed universities.
Literature - VERNACULAR!
Most medieval literature written in vernacular- language of everyday speech of writer. No more Latin! Made literature understandable.
What is Scholasticism?
A system of thought found due to Aristotle's philosophy. Emphasize reason and faith. All knowledge into one, whole piece.
Growth of towns
Many towns grew beside well-traveled roads or waterways. Built walls against bandits. First wood, then stone. Shops at ground, shop owners lived on top. Fire- hazard because buildings made of wood. No sanitation- spread diseases. Bubonic Plague aka Black Death.
No books. Classes met on regular schedule. Rules. To be a teacher, had to pass exam leading to degree (certificate of completion). S. Europe modeled after Bologna, Italy's university (medicine and law). N. Europe modeled after Paris's university (liberal arts and theology).
Trade Expansion
Sea and river routes connected w. Europe, e. Europe, and Scandinavia. Repaired Roman road system for international traders.
As a result of intellectual advances...
advances in literature and arts. Songs and epics put in writing for the first time.
Emergence of a money economy
Used to use barter system. Now, found system stupid. Some merchants only accepted money for payment (silk). Needed medium of exchange.
Trade fairs
Convenient locations held trade fairs once a year. Feudal lords charged merchants fees, charged taxes on goods, and offered protection for merchanges. Most famous- Champagne in France.
Who were troubadours?
Traveling poet-musicians that made lyric poems and songs about love and feats of knights.
Results of a money economy
Led to growth of banking. Moneychangers (Jews/Italians) determined exchange amount. Developed how to transfer funds, deposits, loans, etc. Put feudal classes in economic trouble. Kings, clergy, and nobles depend on $. Had to find ways to make $. DIdn't have feudal services. Serfs could now buy freedom.
Cities in trade
Venice - Silks and spices from Asia to Europe. Flanders was the center of trade for northern Europe. Textiles for porcelain, velvet and silk, and silver.
Who was Peter Abelard?
Peter Abelard wrote Sic et Non (Yes and No) about controvesial questions on religion.
Rise of the Middle Class
The medieval town, burg, created name for new class. Bourgeoisie/burgesses. Anyone living in a town. People who made money through money economy. Didn't rely on land. Merchants, bankers, artisans. Had councils for town affairs and had political power. Kings began to depend on middle class ($). Leading business people were advisers to lords/kings.
Epics and Romances
Anglo-Saxon epic, "Beowulf". French epics called "chansons de geste", songs of high deeds (Song of Roland). Romances about knights and ladies.
Craft guilds
Regulated work of artisans. Assigned specific tasks (blacksmith, carpenter, etc). Women had their own association. Made strict rules on prices, wages, and employment.
Popular literature in vernacular
Dante Alighieri - The Divine Comedy. Geoffrey Chaucer - Canterbury Tales.
Middle Class vs. Feudal Lords
City people didn't like having to pay taxes and services to feudal lords. Feudal lords didn't like the power and wealth of middle class. So, lords enforced laws. Italian towns formed groups called communes, rebelled and won. Now, towns are independent city-states. Some still feudal territory or kingdom.
Who was Thomas Aquinas?
Theologian and philosopher that tought in Paris and Naples. Worte Summa Theologica (summary of religious thought) said reason was a gift from God and could give answers.
What are charters?
Documents that gave townspeople the right to control their own affairs. Some towns were granted this after Italian communes rebelled.
Masters, apprentices, and journeymen in the craft guilds
Masters are artisans who owned their own shops and tools and employed artisans as helpers. Work as apprentice - helper without pay. Then, journeyman- with pay. Could only work under a master. To become master, must have guild approve piece of work.
Benefits of being in a guild
Business aminly. Also had medical help and unemployment relief. Guilds also organized social and religious life
Medieval Art
Churches used to be built in Romanesque style. Now, built in Gothic. Higher ceilings, open interior, light walls. Painters now worked on illuminated manuscripts.
Agricultural advances- overall population increase.
Invention of new, heavier plow-increase food production. Nobles and freeholders (peasants not bound to land) migrated. Collar harness replaced by ox yoke. Horses used to be chocked by ox yoke, but now harness let farmers us horses instead of oxen (faster). Three field system.
Merchant guilds
Maintain monopoly of local market for its members. Restricted trading by foreigners, enforced uniform pricing.

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