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History Chapter 15 2


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What is Devine Right?
The belief that one had a G-d given right to rule
Kings thought that if people disobeyed them they were disobeying G-d
What is a NationState?
definite boundaries, unified rule, and permanent loyal armies

people had national identities ( cultures)
What was the "War of Roses"?
between the Lancasters(red rose) and the Yorks(white rose)

Lancasters won (henry Tudor)
what did Henry VII do?
* imposed heavy fines for having a private army

*efficient tax collecting system

* opened his advisory councils to members of the middle class
What did Henry VIII do?
* he was Henry VII's son

*married Cathrine of Aaragon

*replaced Roman Catholic Church with Anglican church so he could increase wealth and control church

*his military adventures didnt do much except waste $$$
What did Elizabeth I do?
*strengthened Church Of England and stopped the Catholics from killing her

*really good ruler--during her 45 years England had Peace, prosperity and prestige

*supported exploration and the arts

* was the "Virgin Queen" ( and the last of the Tudors)

* she travled around and visited the public
Who was Sir Walter Raleigh and what did he do?
he was an explorer hired by Elizibeth I

* he established colonies in North Carolina
Who was Sir Francis Drake and what did he do?
Explorer hired by Elizabeth I

*sailed around the world to raid spanish ports and ships --he also tried to find new trading partners

*was a pirate
Who was Henry IV and what did he do?
* first king of the Bourbons

*he united France by ending religious wars between Catholics and Huguenots

*Helped Peasants
-lowered peasants' taxes
-reduced power of nobles so
they couldn't abuse peasants

*improved textile industry
Who was Champlain and what did he do?
explorer hired by Henry IV

*founded Quebec
Who was Louis XII and what did he do?
*when his daddy died and he was appointed king he was too young to rule so his mommy appointed CARDINAL RICHELIEU as chief minester
Who was Cardinal Richelieu and what did he do?
*ruled for Louis XII because Louiz was too young to rule

*he appointed representative governers for each district ( called intendants)

*took away privileges from Huguenots

*promoted textile industry

*increased french influence in European affairs by aiding protestant princess in the 30 years war
Who were intendants and what did they do?
they were representative governers appointed by Richelieu to rule each French district

* they established armies, supervised tax collection, regulated businesses, and watched nobility for signs of rebellion
Who was Louis XIV and what did he do?
* became king when 5 years old

* During his reign France became the greatest power in Europe

*Called the "sun king" and the "grand monarch"

*he made france the center of learning and the arts

*built Versailles

*spent more $$ then he had and left the other Bourbon kings to pay off his debts
Who was Jean Baptiste Colbert and what did he do?
one of Louis’s most capable ministers, promoted the policy of mercantilism
Who was Charles V and what did he do?
⬢ A member of the Habsburg family.
⬢ Became holy roman emperor in 1519.
⬢ Opposed protestant reformation and said Martin Luther was an outlaw.
Who was Philip II and what did he do?
*habsburg ruler

* wanted to extend influence of Catholicism into Europe

* was "hands on " ruler
-demanded written reports of all aspects of gov

*used gold and silver from south america to imrpve army and navy

*created the Spanish Armada
What was the Spanish Armada?
created by Philip II

* fleet of ships sent to invade england

*sent cause PHil wanted to take over england and make it Catholic ( he lost)
Who was Maria Theresa and what did she do?
strong Habsburg Ruler

*had to fight to keep other monarchs from taking territory away from her

* joined with Russia and Prussia to divide Poland

* was ruler who promoted education for children
Who was Peter the Great and what did he do?
* was a Romanov ruler

* set up schools for scientific research

* disguised himself and spied on western Europe to gain info about their technologies and ways of life

* brought teachers, engineers, & craftspeople from western Europe to Russia

* forced peole to follow western Europe dress and rules or they were punished

*won territory along baltic sea known as the "windows of the west"

*put the Russian Orthodox Church under his control
Who was Catherine the Great and what did she do?
*continued to westernize Russia

*gave upper class privileges and thus the lower class lost some

*gained the land along the Black sea so that Russia could have a port open all year long
early efforts to limit the powers of absolute monarchs
⬢ Revolution; The use of violence or the threat of violence to bring about basic changes in the way a nation is governed.
What did the Magna Carta do?
set forth the rights of the barons, was eventually extended to the common people.
What are the 2 parts of Parliament?
⬢ House of Lords- included nobles and the church leaders
⬢ House of Commons- made up of wealthy merchants who were commoners.
Who was the king that made Parliament?
Edward I
What did the Petition of Right do?
⬢ Prohibited the ruler from imposing taxes without the consent of parliament.
⬢ Said that no person could be sent to prison without having the charges against him or her made public.
Who were the Royalists and Cavaliers?
those who fought for the king in the civil war?
Who were the Roundheads?
those who fought for parliament, wore their hair in short, bowl-shaped style. Many were puritans and followed the ideas of John Calvin
Who was Oliver Cromwell?
deeply religious Puritan who led the roundhouse forces.
What was Commonwealth?
made by oliver Cromwell

*Cromwell and parliament had equal power

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