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European History Chapter 6, Section 5


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Joseph Bonaparte
Napoloen's brother, who Napoleon appointed as the King of Spain in order to keep control over Europe. The appointment backfired and caused resistence in Spain.
Duke of Wellington
British General who crushed Napoleon's army in the Battle of Waterloo
Marie Louise
An Austrian Princess. Napoleon divorced his wife Josephine and married Marie Louise in order to claim kinship with the royalty of Europe
scorched earth policy
The Russians' favorite way of winning a war. To advoid battles with Napoleon, the Russians retreated eastward, burning crops and villages, leaving the French with no food or supplies as they attacked Moscow.
Napoleon's final Battle. After returning to the throne for 100 days, his forces were defeated by the British under the leadership of the Duke of Wellington
Clemens von Metternich
Prince of Austria, leader of the Congress of Vienna, which wanted to create a lasting balance of power and a stable monarchy
Quadruple Alliance
Four way alliance between Britian, Austria, Prussia, and Russia to maintain order in Europe against revolutionaries
guerrilla warfare
hit-and-run raids, instead of traditional warfare
leaving the throne
the principle of hereditary monarchy
What challenges did Napoleon face in Spain?
Napoleon faced Spanish nationalism. The Spanish were not pleased with the idea of Napoleon replacing their king with his brother Joseph. Spanish created a resistance to drive out the French, and this resistance used guerrilla warfare tatics.
What challenges did Napoleon face in Austria?
Encouraged by Spanish resistance, the Austrians also tried to regain their own territory, however Napoleon defeated them a second time and married their princess Marie Louise.
How did the defeat in Russia lead to Napoleon's downfall?
The Russian scorched earth policy and the brutal Russian winter destroyed Napoleon's army. Only 10,000 soldiers remained after the Russian campaign. Without his army, Napoleon was a weak leader.
What were the cheif goals of the Congress of Vienna?
To create a lasting European peace by restoring a balance of power and restablishing European monarchy

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