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Terms

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james watt
made improvements to the Newcomen engine and patented the modern steam engine.
verdi
italian operatic composer whose music includes Othello, Aida, and other works that reflected his nationalistic beliefs
the Middle Passage
shipment of slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas.
sigmund freud
austrian physician who developed the concept of the unconscious as a determining factor in behavior
reactionaries
extremists who not only oppose change, but generally would like to turn the clock back to the way things were before
Constitution
document outlining the fundamental laws and principles that govern a nation
tithe
church tax collected from Christians in early times that represented one-tenth of their income
Rene-Robert de La Salle
claimed the entire inland region of North America for France. Named it louisianna
indemnity
money for war damages
Viceroys
representatives of the spanish monarch in Spain's colonial empire
unions
associations of workers that plans actions and coordinates demands for workers
laissez-faire
belief that government should not interfere with the operations of business
conscription
draft adopted in France that made men from 18 to 45 years of age liable for military service
Vasco de Gama
sailed beyond the Cape of Good Hope eastward across the Indian Ocean, landing in India in 1498
democratic socialism
political system in which the government takes over the means of production peacefully;people retain basic human rights and partial control over economic planning
James Hargreaves
a poor English weaver, invented the spinning jenny
Charles 1
monarch whose religious restraints led to thousands of Puritans leaving England during the 1630s for a new life in America
nationalism
love of one's country rather than love of a native region
moderates
during the French Revolution, people who had no extreme views and sided with conservatives and radicals, depending on the situation
radicals
people who want far-reaching changes.
sectionalism
three distinct areas developed in the united states and their rivalry eventually led to the civil war. the north and south lost more than 600,000 lives.
abraham lincoln
in 1860 he was elected president of the unites states. he headed the newly formed republican party, which had pledged to prevent the spread of slavery into the territories
elizabeth cady stanton
women's rights advocate who organized the seneca falls convention
toleration act
law that granted freedom of conscience to those protestants who were not members of the Anglican church
Enlightenment
belief that people could apply the scientific method and use reason to logically explain human nature; the philosophical movement of the eighteenth century
divine right of kings
belief that god ordained certain individuals to govern
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spaniard who discovered and claimed the South Sea for Spain
reaction
time when those in authority wanted to return to the orderly conditions of an earlier period
henry bessemer
englishman who developed a cheap and efficient method of making steel
free enterprise
principle that every person should be free to go into any business and to operate it for his/her greatest advantage
charles darwin
british biologist who developed the theory of natural selection to describe evolution
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty that moved the line between Spain and Portugal farther west
Navigation Act of 1651
marked the beginning of England's policing of the seas
home rule
self-government
Cartel
by 1900 a number of corporations in Germany had combined to control entire industries. A ______ might own coal and iron mines, steel mills, and factories that used steel to build machines
balance of power
an equilibrium of power between nations
triangular trade
Atlantic slave trade system in which merchants shipped cotton goods, weapons, and liquor to Africa in exchange for slaves or gold.
sir walter scott
scottish novelist whose Ivanhoe reflected the days of knighthood
louis philippe
"citizen king" of france who favored measures that benefited the middle class
durham report
as a direct result of report submitted to parliament by lord durham in 1839 parliament granted canada self-government in 1848
counterrevolution
fight against the regular French army and the Revolution in the wetern part of France
walter camp
american who adapted rugby into an early form of football
james fenimore cooper
american writer of adventure stories that idealized the American Indian and the frontier
peninsular
white person in latin america who was born in spain or portugal
eli whitney
invented the cotton gin
naturalist
writer whose work portrayed life in its less attractive but real form
sea dogs
group of English sea captains who were both traders and pirates
special theory of relativity
theory that motion can be measured only relative to some particular observer
Nadir Shah
Ruler whose military conquests extended Persia's boundaries and who destroyed Mughal power in India
sole proprietorship
business owned and controlled by one person
Peter the Great
He decided to remodel Russia along western European lines. He built a new city, St. Petersburg and in 1703 moved the capital from Moscow to St.Petersburg, bringing the center of Russian government closer to the nations of western Europe.
simon bolivar
nicknamed the liberator, led revolutions against the Spanish in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
subsidies
government grants of money
galleys
long ships used before 1400s which carried most European coastal trade
psychoanalysis
process of revealing and analyzing the unconscious
mulatto
latin american of african and european ancestry
Francisco Pizarro
He led a Spanish expedition from the Isthmus of Panama to the Inca Empire in what is now Peru and in 1532 seized it for Spain
robert fulton
american engineer who adapted the steam engine for use on his ships. his boat, the clermont, was launched on the hudson river in 1807
John Cabot
Venetian sea captain whose voyages gave England a claim in North America
tax farming
system of taxation in which the government sells up to private individuals the right to collect taxes
utopian socialists
people who believe that people can live at peace with each other if they live in small cooperative settlements, owning all of the means of production in common and sharing the products
genetics
study of how inborn characteristics are passed on
salons
gatherings of the social, political, and cultural elite in France
Spanish Armada
in 1588 England defeated the Spanish navy and from that point controlled the seas until World War I
capitalism
economic system in which private individuals rather than the government control the factors of production
Cabinet
group of advisers, most of them heads of departments, that meets with a head of government
Treaty of Kanagawa
treaty that brought japanese isolation to an end in 1854; when the japanese agreed to open treaty ports to the americans for shelter and trade
Robert Clive
named governor-general of India by the British government
junk
long, sturdy ship built by the early Chinese
depression
lowest point in business cycle
toussaint-louverture
he was a freed slave, who led the only successful revolution led by slaves anywhere in the world. Saint domingue proclaimed its independence under the ancient name of haiti
tariffs
an import tax on foreign goods brought into a country
expansion of slavery
the main issue dividing the sections in the united states
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
overlord who established a hereditary warrior class in Japan
impressionist
artist whose paintings portrayed scenes as they might be seen in a quick glance
james monroe
american president who declared the united states's opposition to european interference in the western hemisphere
otto von bismarck
head of the prussian government, he decided that war with france would help achieve german unification under prussian leadership. to this end, he made a series of clever diplomatic maneuvers that insulted the french. in 1870 france declared war on prussia just as hehad hoped that they would
suffrage
the right to vote
mercantilism
belief that a nation's power was directly related to its wealth and the only way to increase a country's wealth was to take wealth from another country
socialism
political and economic system in which the government owns the means of production
thirty years' war
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Philip II
Son of Charles V, born and educated in Spain. Ruled Spain until his death in 1598. Under him, Spain's financial problems grew as he pursued his leadership position as head of the Counter Reformation. He sent the Spanish Armada against England in 1588 but it ended in disaster
chartists
reformers who wanted changes like universal male suffrage; the secret ballot; and payment for members of parliament, so that even workingmen could afford to enter politics. this group supported a document called the people's charter
Gentry
members of the House of Commons who, though without titles, had social position and owned land
Mahmud II
ruler who introduced autocratic reforms to the Ottoman Empire
Oliver Cromwell
leader who took power after Charles I was beheaded;became essentially a military dictator
charles townshend
by means of repeated experiments, he learned that alternating different kinds of crops would preserve soil fertility. (crop rotation)
universal manhood suffrage
election process that allowed every man to vote regardless of whether he owned property
alexander graham bell
invented the telephone
radioactivity
process by which atoms of certain elements disintegrate and release energy
queue
braid of hair that the Chinese were forced to wear by the Manchus so the Manchus could preserve their distinction from the Chinese
Limited Constitutional Monarchy
system of government in which a king or queen sits on the throne but does not have absolute power, and in which a constitution limits the monarch's power
evolution
theory that plant and animal life developed from common ancestors over millions of years
beethoven
german composer whose music expressed a love of nature, called for liberty, and aroused powerful emotion
plebiscite
procedure used by Napolean to submit the constitution of his new government to the people for a vote
women's suffrage
new zealand became the first country in the world to adopt voting rights for women in 1893
commercial revolution
changes/developments in the European economy from 1400 to 1750, which improved ways of doing business
napoleon III
the nephew of napoleon bonaparte became the king of france by the vote of the people, he tried to quiet discontent at home by winning glory for france abroad
communism
economic and political system in which the government owns almost all the means of production and controls economic planning;authoritarian socialism
ivan pavlov
russian biologist who discovered the conditioned reflex
Revolution
violent attempt to change the structure of a country's government
favorable balance of trade
situation that exists when a country sells more goods than it buys from a foreign country
coalition
political groups organized in support of a common cause
john dalton
english chemist who devised a method for "weighing" atoms
Sam Morse
invented the telegraph
liberalism
political movement whose followers believed that represntative government ought to protect individual freedoms
domestic system
method of production in which work is done in homes rather than in a shop or factory
emigres
nobles who fled France during the French Revolution
Maria Theresa
inherited austria and other habsburg lands
guglielmo marconi
italian inventor of the wireless telegraph
departments
administrative districts of France
primogeniture
french law under which only the eldest son could inherit his father's property
Louis XIV
He established a strong absolute monarchy in France. He fought four wars in order to establish natural borders for France but forced his country into financial ruin
monopoly
complete control of the production or sale of a good or service by a single firm
enclosure movement
english farmers fenced off common lands into individual holdings, largely for the benefit of the already wealthy landholders.
Catherine the Great
She gained her name because of her foreign policy which allowed Russia to add more than 200,000 sq. miles of territory to her empire. She also supported art and literature, favored the education of women, and built hospitals.
Louis XIV
"sun king";king of France;72-year long reign (longest in French history); built the palace at Versailles
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended 30 Years War; Treaty signed at Munster and Osnabruck, ending religious wars; the sovereignty of over 300 German princes recognized, limiting power of Holy roman Emperor; independence in United Provinces of the Netherlands recognized; France received Alsace, Sweden received large cash indemnity and control over German territories along Baltic Sea; Papacy denied right to participate in German religious affairs; Augsburg agreement remained permanent; Calvinism became legally permissible creed.
mass production
system of manufacturing a large number of identical goods
northwest ordinance
provided for an orderly expansion of the united states. it stated that people who lived in territories would have rights equal to those who lived in the original 13 states
white lotus society
led a peasant rebellion because of discontent over increased taxes and decreased services
pasteurization
process of heating liquids to kill bacteria
free trade
belief that government should not restrict or interfere in international trade
edmund cartwright
english m inister who met the need for a faster weaving process with his invention of the power loom
enlightened despotism
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
Ferdinand Magellan
Sailed to South Sea that Balboa had found and named it the Pacific Ocean. Also claimed the Philippine Islands for Spain
dreyfus affair
this case showed the world that anti-semitism existed in france. captain alfred dreyfus, a jewish officer, was falsely convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for betraying his country by giving secrets to germany. widespread cynicism about the third republic of france came about
guerrilla warfare
military technique relying on swift raids by small bands of soldiers
Matthew Perry
commander of American naval force sent to Japan to negotiate a commercial treaty
thomas hobbes
english philosopher and auathor of leviathan who believed that anarchy would result unless the monarch was given absolute power
quantum theory
theory that energy can be released only in definite "packages"
collective bargaining
process of negotiation between union and management representatives to agree on wages, hours, and working conditions
Sir Francis Drake
first English sea captain to sail around the world
strike
bargaining method involving the refusal of worker to work until their demands have been met
proletariat
working class
Bartholomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
astrolabe
navigation instrument which applied astronomy and geometry to navigation and allowed sailors to determine latitude
edict of nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship; canceled by Louis XIV in 1685
mechanization
use of automatic machinery to increase production
corporation
business organization in which individuals by shares of stock, elect directors to decide policies and hire managers, and receive dividends according to the number of shares they own
James I
monarch who believed in the divine right of kings and who ordered a new translation of the bible into english
Charles V
He ruled as King of Spain and as Holy Roman emperor until 1556 when he gave up his throne and divided his vast lands between members of his familly
John Locke
English philosopher who believed that people have certain rights that the state should protect
charles goodyear
american inventor who discovered that by mixing sulfur and rubber in a process called vulcanizing, he could "cure" rubber and make it more elastic and usable
christabel pankhurst
along with her mother, she led the women's movement for the right to vote in great britain. the suffragettes finally managed to get a bill passed in 1928
business cycle
economic pattern of alternating periods of prosperity and decline
authoritarian socialism
communism
absolute monarchy
system of government in which the ruler determines policy without consulting either the people or their representatives
philology
history of literature and language
alessandro volta
italian who built the first battery
philosophes
thinkers or philosophers of the Enlightenment
mark twain
american regionalist writer whose novels include The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn
wilbur and orville wright
first people to fly a powered airplane in sustained, controlled flight
mestizo
latin american of american indian and european background
division of labor
division of the manufacturing process into a series of separate tasks, with each task assigned to a different worker or group of workers
thomas edison
invented the lightbulb
creole
white person who is born in the Latin American colonies
Charles II
monarch whose religious restraints led to thousands of Puritans leaving England during the 1630s for a new life in America
Covenant
solemn agreement
popular sovereignty
governmental principle based on just laws and on a government created by and subject to the will of the people
coup d'etat
seizure of power by force
romanticism
artistic style that glorified emotion and instinct
treaty of utrecht
ended the war of the spanish succession
conservatives
people who do not want to change existing conditions
intendant
regional administrator of a French province
sir robert peel
british politician who organized a permanent police force in London
Burgesses
merchants and professional people who were represented in the House of Commons
extraterritoriality
exemption of foreigners from the laws of the nation in which they live or do business
hacienda
spanish colonists formed large, self-sufficient farming estates
crimean war
france defeated russia in this war that lasted two years. it has become known as the most unnecessary war in history. the only positive thing that happened was that modern field hospitals to care for the wounded came into use, and florence nightingale established professional nursing of the wounded
pragmatic sanction
the rulers of Europe would promise to allow Maria Theresa to inherit the Hapsburg lands intact, even though the law is some lands required that the inheritance go to a male
Jacques Cartier
his voyage up to the St. Lawrence river gave the French a claim to much of eastern Canada
Elizabeth I
monarch from 1558 to 1603 who established a strong central government while respecting the rights of Parliament
liberalism
movement that extended the principles of the American and French revolutions; stressed individual rights and the rule of law rather than the rule of a monarch
joint-stock companies
business organization that raised money by selling investors stock, or shares, in the company
sir alexander fleming
british discoverer of penicillin
legitimacy
policy stating that all former ruling families should be restored to their thrones
rationalism
characteristic of the Enlightenment ;rose from the belief that truth can be arrived at solely by reason
Henry Hudson
explorer who searched for the Northwest Passage and who explored hudson bay in northern Canada
henry ford
he applied the mass-production system to the production of automobiles, founded on of the largest industries in the USA
habeas corpus
latin for "you shall have the body". It protected individuals against illegal arrest and unlawful imprisonment
Charles Cornwallis
military leader of the British East India Company in the mid 1700s
scorched-earth policy
practice of burning or destroying crops and everything else that might be of value to an enemy
tchaikovsky
russian composer whose music was often built around stories and developed nationalistic themes
wilhelm rontgen
german physicist who discovered X rays
sepoys
native troops in India that the British trained and led into battle
britain's third reform bill of 1884
it gave most agricultural workers the right to vote
Tokugawa Ieyasu
japanese overlord who established a shogunate that remained in his family for more than 250 years
william gladstone
british prime minister and leader of the liberal party responsible for many reforms
white australia policy
after a flood of immigrants entered the country in the mid-1800s, laws were passed to allow only whites to immigrate. ideas of racial superiority also led to brutal violence against native peoples. this antagonized many nations particularly those in asia
bourgeoisie
city-dwelling middle class in France

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