This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

ANTH Exam 2


undefined, object
copy deck
Pliocene Epoch: 2-5 million years ago During Pliocene Epoch, hominins are first known
What primates engage in self-medication?
Gorillas (geophagy), chimps (swallow leaves whole), lemurs, Capuchin monkeys - self-medication
Fossil + Examples
the remains of life preserved in the earth Examples: Fossilized wood & bones Impressions & moulds of soft tissue Worm burrows Termite mounds Footprints Mummified remains?
Arboreal Hypothesis
primates are rooted in the Superorder Archonta which was/is arboreal. The suite of traits observed in primates have evolved to exploit a life in the trees and a vegetative diet
-Allometry-the relationship of size and shape of an organism. The study of the relationships between size, morphology, ecology, and behavior
Absolute Dating
process of determining a specific date for an archaeological or palaeontological site or artifact
What lines of evidence do primate paleontologist use to recreate past environments and primate behavior?
Reconstructing Past Environments 1) Sediments - Chemical make up & structure of soils high in nitrogen of volanic soil + compare with tropical environments 2) Fossil vertebrates 3) Fossil Invertebrates snails, clams, wet areas 4) Fossil plants and pollens a. Sirenian (manitee) and Anthracothere (extinct Hippo animal) 5) Fossil leaves are consistent with tropical environment 6) Abundant fossil wood a. Trees in the tropics, top soil is thin, create a buttress 7) Fossil Fruit are indicative of tropical environment 8) EPIPREMNUN are fruit that grow on vines in tropical environments 9) Huge tropical tree trunk and root system
Fayum Depression of Egypt
1) Earliest documentation of the diagnostic anthropoid cranial features; complete post orbital closure and a fused metopic suture (singlel fronal bone) 2) Fossils of primates include representatives of a t least two families of anthropoids, indicating that earlier anthropoids must exist 3) They represent rather small anthropoids, all having an estimated body mass of less than 1 kilo
Forces instrumental in nonhuman primate population decreases and extinctions
Dramatic changes in climate en ecology, 1) shift in tectonic plates which created the Alps, Himalayas, and East african mountain chains 2) ocean currents shifted and polar ice caps reform 3) tropical forests changed to mixed woodlands and grasslands
Taung Child
Austrolopithecus africanus - southern ape found in africa, dismissed as a gorilla, 3-4 yrs old, lived 2.6 mya, juvenile Hominid, Small brain, large jaw,
Stratigraphic Correlation: the process of matching up strata from several sites through the analysis of chemical, physical, and other properties
-Dr. Penny Patterson & Koko Great Ape who acquired Human Language
Dental cusps & crests
Cusps - top of the teeth, crests are between them
Karanisia clarki Saharagalago misrensis
4) L-41 Primates also include a fossil loris & at least two species of adapid primates a. In 2003, Simons & colleagues announced that they had recovered tooth-combed primates from middle Eocene deposits Karanisia clarki (loris ancestor) Saharagalago misrensis (gallago ancestor) -Sex and Grooming, an evolutionary significance to perpetuate the species, for love,
Carbon 14 Dating
the radiometric dating method in which the ratio of 14C to 12C is measured to provide an absolute date for ORGANIC material younger than 50000 years
Primate paleontology
the study of primate evolutionary history and ancient primates
Whom do the Adapidae give rise to?
Know the 3 primate origin hypotheses.
ARBOREAL (all of our traits are there because we evolved from the trees), VISUAL (primates have these traits are for catching insects), ANGIOSPERM (once flowering plant mutation takes off, that's how you get monkeys in the trees)
Bob Bass
Bill Bass - takes care of the Body Farm (taphonomist)
Comparative Method
method & Theory of comparing the form & function of living & extinct primate morphologies
Robert Broom
Scottish physician and paleontologist impressed with Dart's Taung Child
Worked at Belleview Zoo, traveled, wore suits,
Fayum Depression
Tropical depression in Egypt
raniofacial anatomy -Braincase shape and size -Prognathism of face -Canine Size -Shape of Chin -Dental arcade shape U-shape dental arcade + Diastema, space Parabolic Dental Arcade >Simian Shelf...LOCOMOTOR ANATOMY - hominins show a series of features in the foot, knee, femur, & hips related to bipedal locomotion BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS - ape are quite complex, humans are even more complex Architecture, technology,
study of what happens to an organism's remains
What was the Fayum like during the Oligocene?
Wet, Warm, Tropical
-famous taphonomist that analyzed fossil assemblages from the cave sites in the Sterkfontein Valley, South Africa -Analyzed long bones from several taxa which had been killed and scavenged by carnivores & cached by rodents -Concluded that early South African hominis were the "hunted" not the "hunters" which dispelled the Killer Ape Theory
4 Simple Steps of Natural Selection
1. Overpopulation 2. Inherited variation 3. Best suited to the environment SHOULD survive and reproduce 4. Offspring look like their parents
Potassium Argon Dating
Potassium-argon dating - measure the rate that volcanic rocks degrade from potassium to argon
Miocene: The age of...
E.L. Simons
Primate biologist who went to the FAYUM and found more than 1000 fossils of ancient primates from Eocene to Oligocene
Project Washoe
- 1st Chimp to acquire human sign language -When? Project Washoe began in 1966. Washoe was purchased by Alan and Beatrix Gardner. It would later include Mojo, Tatu, Dar, and Loulis. -Cross Fostering - Refers to one species raising the young of another. It occurs quite often among birds. The Gardeners cross fostered each. >wore clothes and shoes, they had dolls
Omomys carteri
an omomyoid primate that lived in North America about 48 million years ago -Body size: 300g (body mass based on dental, cranial, and skeletal elements EAT INSECTS + sharp teeth - eating leaves and insects Activity Pattern: nocturnal >the activity pattern of O. carteri was determined by comparing tarsier skull ( tarsius) to a fossilized mandible fragment of O. carterri Notice the crescent shape of the eye orbit exhibited on these mandibles Diet: insectivorous & frugivorous O. Carteri diet based on tooth morphology & shearing quotients Locomotor Pattern: arboreal quadruped (active runner and leaper) movement patterns are determined based on limb morphology & features Omomys Carteri SYNOPSIS Body size: 300 g Mouse lemur, dwarf lemur Eocene habitants that Adapids and Omomyids live in WOMING
Habitus and heritage
Heritage is one's evolutionary/phylogenetic history (Homo sapiens, Homo erectus, etc) Habitage - sum of all your morphologies/adaptations/characteristics/behaviors
CK Brain
disproves Killer Ape Model
The rafting hypothesis
Rafting hypothesis - how the NWM got to the New World
EQ of humans and chimpanzees
Human = 6.28 Chimp = 2.38
Cenozoic Era: Age of...
New Life includes Paleo, Eo, Oligo,Mio, Plio, Pleisto, and Holo-cenes 0- 65 mya
Early Oligocene Anthropoid
Phylogenetic Inertia
influence of an ancestor on a descendent. The basic idea here is, If it ain't broke, don't fix it. Phylogenetic inertia keeps traits as they are but doesn't make them better (except by accident)
Lemurs, Lorises & Galagos...Body Size 100g to 6.0 kg (most are larger than 1000g) Activity pattern: mostly diurnal, at least one genus was nocturnal Diet: Primarily frugivorous, number of folivores and handful of insectivores Locomotion: active arboreal quadrupeds (runners & leapers) some more specialized leapers, & deliberate arboreal quadrupeds Behavioral holdover when it pads down the "grass"
Ernst Haeckel
Ape-man without speech Haeckel Humans Evolve in Asia in -suggests that Asian apes: orangutans and gibbons were human's closest living relatives Suggests that humans evolved in Asia & conjures up our missing link Pithecanthropus alalus (ape man without speech)
anthropologist talks to local people about the foods they use
Dating based on the changes in the world's magnetism
How can you determine the activity pattern of an extinct primate?
-Nocturnal-big eyes -Diurnal-small eyes -Orbit size-eyeball size Orbit Size & activity patterns in extinct and extant non-humans primates
Human cc
the study of the factors that determine which parts of an organism becomes a fossil, how the organism is preserved, & how the organism appears to the taphonomist years later Processes of fossilization Increasing Taxonomic Grade > abrasion and Fragmentation
Visual Adaptations
primate traits arose as a result of insect predation. Insect predation required a 3-D vision, grasping hands and feet&nails. These adaptations are suitable for a primate which Is nocturnal, arboreal and insectivorous
Smilodectes gracilis
Smilodectes gracilis is an adapid primate that lived in North America about 48 million years ago Smilodectes gracilis is abot 2kg in body mass Body mass based on M2 Based on orbit siz & Smilodectes gracilis represented by explosion Based on tooth morphology & shearing quotients (SQ) FOLIVOROUS Based on hand, foot, & limp morphology, engaged in vertical clinging and leaping skeletons are similar to presentday sifaka (propithecus) Adapid primate that lived in N. america 48 million years ago Body Size : 2kg Activity Pattern: diurnal Diet: folivorous Locomotory: VCL
L41 is about 36 mya Late Eocene Scull of Catopithecus from L 41 Early antropoid has 2123 dental formula and is indicative of Old World Monkey or Ape
How to become a fossil. & Chances of becoming a fossil
Are large bodied Get buried in anoxic conditions Mineralize Avoid tectonically active areas Live in an area that will become badlands and erode in the Helocene Are exposed gently Are discovered
Tarsiers: Taxonomic diversity: 39 genera, 91 species Body Size: 45g 1700g (most less than 400g) Activity: mostly nocturnal, at least one genus was diurnal Diet: Primarily frugivorous, a number of insectivores, & possibly a foivore or two Locomotion: active arboreal quadrupeds runners and leapers some more specialized leapers Teilhardina Omomys carteri is an omomyoid primate that lived in North America about 48 million years ago, over 200 specimens representing seven individuals found in this quadrant Accumulation of bones appears to be remains of a small primate that was being preyed on by an owl (owl like bird)
The amount of time it takes for radioisotopes (Carbon 14 to change to carbon 12) to decay
-Dr. Sue Savage Rumbaugh & Kanzi Great Ape who acquired Human Language
-Eosimias: the earliest known anthropoid (monkey) -Eosimias (the dawn monkey) -45 MYA -Discovered in China -Body Size 100g -Activity Pattern: nocturnal -Diet: Insectivorous Kaye's Threshold -Locomotory pattern: arboreal quadrupedalism -Extant analog: tarsier (Tarsius) Eosimias fossilized remains: Dorsal view of haplorhine calcanei
Know how body size, tooth size, tooth shape are important for understanding extinct and extant primates.
Helps to better understand the relationships between size, morphology, ecology, and behavior
Primate paleontologists
study extant and extinct primates to understand how each behaves/behaved. Use the comparative method. Reconstruct behavior, diet, social systems, locomotory patterns, activity patterns, and life history traits by studying fossils and making comparisons to living primates
Two or more forms of a chemical element that vary in the number of neutrons in the nucleus and by the atomic weight
Oligocene: The age of...
Monkeys.... OLIGOCENE anthropoids MONKEYS Look at adaptive breadth 2123 2133 Oligocene Epoch: 23 to 35 mya Climate: global climate cools with glaciers forming in Antarctica for the first time during the Cenozoic Era. As ice sheets develop, sea levels fall. The tropics diminished, giving way to cooler woodlands & grasslands habitats Life: Angiosperms continue to diversify. Largest mammal (indricotherium) roams central Asia (we observe much more megafauna in the Pleistocene) Primate Life: Anthropoids diversify & new species are observed
Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) tool use
Macaques use fibres/people's hair to floss
Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) alarm calls
Vervet monkeys - first documented monkeys that use calls for predators
Ms. Ples
Found by Robert Broom australopithecus africanus & he also found paranthropus robustus (beside human)
Characteristics of the fossil record
Inherently Incomplete Preservation bias -Teeth are by far the most common biological element in the fossil record -That's OK, if there is one thing we want to survive geologic time, its teeth! Constantly growing
Plesiadapids - in the book (get outcompeted by rodents, bats, primates), share some traits with primates (e.g. without post-orbital bar)
Whom do the Omomyidae give rise to?
Project Loulis
In 1979, Loulis joins the Washoe, Moja, Tatu, and Dar in Oklahoma. Loulis is taught sign language by the other four chimpanzees with no human interference -All the signs he learns are from the other chimpanzees -Koko's kitten - killed 10 kittens > 2000 signs?
Raymond Dart
Australian born working in Africa who found the Tuang Child, attempts to explain behavior of early austropithecines with KILLER APE MODEL based on Makapansgat
Diagnostic primate traits.
1) Petrosal bulla 2) Opposable hallux 3) Flattened nails on some digits 4) Long grasping fingers 5) Post-orbital bar 6) Forward facing eyes
Chimpanzee cranial capacity (cc)
Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis
Angiosperms (flowering plants) experienced an adaptive radiation. This changed the structure of forests & provided new ecological niches. Early primates adapted quickly to fill these niches & developed a constellation of traits to feed on fruits & flowers & the insects on these trees
Relative Dating
estimates the order of prehistoric and geological events were determined by using basic stratigraphic rules, and by observing where fossil organisms lay in the geological record, stratified bands of rocks present throughout the world. Though relative dating can determine the order in which a series of events occurred, not when they occurred
Encephalization quotient (EQ)
ratio of the actual brain mass to the expected brain mass of a typical animal that size
the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms
Shearing quotient (what do animals with a lot of shear eat?)
High cusps - have a lot of shear - eat leaves (if over 500 grams) and insects (if under 500 grams) Low cusps - not a lot of shear - eat fruit
Charles Darwin & Thomas Huxley's ideas regarding human evolution
CHARLES DARWIN suggested that Africa was the cradle of human evolution THOMAS HUXLEY argued that our closest relatives were the African Great Apes
Bushmeat Trade
meat of wild, free ranging animals includes reptiles birds, mammals and invertebrates
Shearing quotient
-Shearing Quotient (SQ) the length of those crests and that it will determine If it eats a lot of leaves
Encephalization Quotient
ratio of brain size to body size (1350 (humans), 393 (chimps))
Fluoring Testing
a relative (chemical) dating method that compares the accumulation of fluorine in animal bones from the same sites A bone in the ground longer will have more fluoringe
Sexual dimorphism and monomorphism and primate social systems
Sexual dimorphism and canine length - best indicators of multi-male/multi-female group....Social Systems: primates living in monogamous or solitary social systems are usually monomorphic. Primates living in uni-male & multi-female or multi-male & multi female groups are generally sexually dimorphic Males usually exhibit a larger body size & canine length Monomorphic = MONOGAMOUS Many males and many females
56-65 mya 1st archaic mammals after the dinosaurs...Impact Theory - soil in air, blocked out sun, killed plants and dinosaurs + eggs were all determined by one With the massive extinctions of dinosaurs ~65 mya, mammals evolved rapidly to fill many niches...
Patri-local vs Patri focal
Patri-local > when locality and center of social system is where the male is from - moves to where males are Patri-Focal>women take on a male's name
What group of species went extinct, opening up new niches for mammals to diversify? When did this group of species go extinct?
Dinosaurs 65 mya
Eocene: The age of...
Primates...Distribution of Eocene primates & living primates -shrinkage of distribution of primates Eocene: 35 to 56 mya First adaptive radiations of primates...Distribution of Eocene primates & living primates -shrinkage of distribution of primates Eocene: 35 to 56 mya First adaptive radiations of primates Adapidae & Omomyidae 1st primates found in North America, W. Europe, Asia, & N. Africa
Best known fayum primate Early Oligocene Anthropoid ... a sexually dimorphic anthropoid living in multi-male and multi-female: 6700g Diurnal Fruit w/ some leaves, arboreal quadruped an early cattarhine
-Dr. Lyn nMiles & Chantek Great Ape who acquired Human Language

Deck Info