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The study of interrelationships among the living and nonliving componenets of the environment.


Ultimate goal of offspring is to...
Food goes to...
1. Survival
2. Growth
3. Reproduction
Characteristics of Living Things
1. Adaptation
2. Growth
3. Homeostasis
4. Metabolism
5. Organization
6. Reproduction
7. Respond to Stimuli
Increase in cell size and/or number
Complex Carbon based molecules
Living things reproduce using DNA or RNA
Capacity to evolve
Respond to stimuli
Adjustments to environmental changes
Acquire and use energy
Maintain internal environment
What is the Linnean classification?
Binomial nomenclature.
What did Carolus call the species?
Solanum caule inermi herbacea, foliis pinnatis integgerimus OR "The Solanum with a weak herbaceous stem and pinnately compound leaves with entire margins". This type of classification is an obvious need for changes.
Scientific names should...
1. describe species
2. be latinized always underlined or italicized
3. have Genus name capitalized species never capitalized
4. provide useful info about the species.
5. not be vulgar.
6. have genus/species concept.
system of binomial nomenclature
1. Kingdom
2. Phylum
3. Class
4. Order
5. Family
6. Genus
7. Species
What is the human classification?
1. K-Animalia
2. P-Chordata
3. C-Mammalia
4. O-Primates
5. F-Homonoidae
6. G-Homo
7. S-sapiens
What book did Charles Darwin write?
When did he write it?
On the origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life
What name is Charles Darwin called?
Father of Evolution
When was Charles Darwin born? When did he die?
When did Aristotle's life occur?
384-322 B.C.
What was Aristotle's way of classification called?
Scala naturae
What was Aristotle sometimes called?
"Father of biological classification"
What is the scala naturae or "scale of nature"?
The result of Aristotle's belief that all living organisms could be arranged on a scale of increasing complexity, which he called the scala naturae.
What was the Systema Naturae?
When was it published?
-Book that Linnaeus wrote where he placed a system of classification that he devised.
What two things did the Linnean classification reveal?
1. The natural relationships between species.
2. That species were morphologically similar and that they were a reflection of God's Plan of Creation.
When did Carolus Linnaeus' life occur?
What is the classification of Wile E. Coyote?
What were Darwin's major points?
1. Variation exists in all natural populations.
2. Most species have the potential to reproduce at a rate that, if unchecked, would exhaust environmental resources.
3. Since resources are limited, organisms with the "advantageous" variations will survive.
What are to modern definition of natural selection?
1. "Survival of the fittest"
2. Differential rates of reproduction
What are the three types of fitness?
1. Individual finess
2. Species fitness
2. Population fitness
What are the 3 Tenants of Natural Selection?
1. Nonrandom survival
2. Nonrandom mating
3. Nonrandom fecundity
What does nonrandom survival mean?
Things to do not survive randomly.
What does nonrandom mating mean?
Mating is not a random event.
What does nonrandom fecundity mean?
The number of offspring produced is not random.
When scientists study the concept of fitness, what do they usually look at?
Femal fitness.
How is the concept of fitness measured?
In reproductive units.
What are the three types of survival strategies?
1. Altricial vs. precocial young
2. Offspring per reproductive effort
3. Parental Care
What are the mating strategies?
1. Always the female choice
2. Monogamy
3. Polygamy
4. Promiscuity.
Since it's the female choice to mate, what do the males do?
They fight and compete to be chosen.
What is one example of a mating strategy?
Bats-sperm storage.
What are the two types of polygamy?
1. Polyandry-one female mates with more than onemale which male meates with only one female
2. One male mates with more than one female while each female mates with only one male.
What is monogamy?
Where you mate with only one individual for a time period.
You can have it for a season, or for life. If you lose them, then you don't mate again.
What is promiscuity?
Mating with no relationship.
What does the number of offpsring you get per each reproductive effort play a role with?
It plays a role with whether you get a altricial or precocial offspring.
What are the strategies for fecundity?
1. Timing
2. Energy expense
3. Delayed implantation
4. Environment (drought and armadillos)
Where can all excess energy go into?
Why would one delay implantation?
Because you can wait to become pregnant in a stressful situation, like an armadillo.
What is the current method of classification that we use?
Linnean classification.
Why does a particular species live where it does?
1. The area has good resoruces.
2. They are most suited for that environment, as opposed to another.
3. Competition.
What are the 5 major environments?
1. Fresh water (1%)
2. Salt Water (largest, 70%)
3. Terrestrial (2nd, 29-30%)
4. Estuary (much less than 1%)
5. Endoparasitic (much less than 1%)
Where is an estuary?
Where fresh and salt water meet.
What is an endoparasitic environment?
An organism inside another organism.
What is the hypothesis about salt water and fresh water species?
There are more fresh water species than salt water species.
What principle did German chemist Justice Von Liebig propose in 1840?
The Law of the Minimum?
What does Justice and the Law of the Minimum say?
1. "Plants need a certain type and amount of nutrients."
2. If one nutrientis missing, the plant will die.
3. If the resources are limited, the plant is limited in its ability to grow.
4. Also works for animals.
What principle did Victor Shelford bring about in 1913?
The Law of Tolerance.
What does the Law of Tolerance say?
1. Tolerance limits vary-seasonally, through life, geographically.
2.Too much or little affected.
3. Hormesis.
4. Classical Limiting Factor.
What is an organism with wide tolerance called?
What is an organism with narrow tolerance called?
What are some abiotic factors (classical limiting factors)?
1. Temperature
2. Oxygen
3. Water
4. Pressure
5. Light
6. pH
Tell more about temperature and its role as an abiotic factor.
-It's the number one factor that organisms have to deal with.
-It has two major effects:
1) Changes biochemical structure and therefore function
2) Influences rates of chemical reactions
What are the three organismal categories of temperature?
1. Cold-blooded-ectotherm-poikilotherms
2. Warm-blooded-endotherm-homeotherms
3. Heterotherms
What are the organismal categrories of oxygen?
1.Anaerobe:Don't need oxygen
2. Aerobic: Need oxygen
3. Facultative Anaerobe: Require oxygen to reproduce but not to survive.
What is special about water?
Pressure is a problem for every fish. T/F?
False. Pressure is not a problem for some fish.
What are the different types of species interactions?
1. Neutralism
2. Commensalism
3. Amensalism
4. Competition
5. Herbivory, parasitism, predation
6. Mutualism
What is neutralism?
Species interact without affecting each other's fitness.
Ex: Dragonflies, bunny rabbits.
What is Commensalism?
One species gains with no effect on the other.
Ex: Orchids, trees, barnacles.
What is Amensalism?
One species suffers, the other does not.
Ex: Ants and elephants. Lol.
What is Competition?
Two species use the same limiting resource.
What is herbivory, parasitism, predation?
One species eats another.
What is mutualism?
Both species benefit.
Ex: Fungus on roots.
What are the 4 responses to environmental change?
1.Passive-No response
2.Behavioral-First line of defense
3. Biochemical/Physiological
4. Adapt/Evolve-genetic change passed on
Can Different species live in the same habitat?
Yes, but not in the same niche.
What are the two types of niches?
Realized and Fundamental.
What is the realized niche?
The niche that is really used in face of competition in nature. It is the niche that organisms occupies.
What is the fundamental niche?
The entire niche that the organism can use. This niche is absent in the lab. In the face of competition, the fundamental niche becomes much smaller and is called the realized niche.
What is the Competitive Exclusion Principles?
A principle that says that no two similar species occupy the same niche at the same time. It also lists the possible outcomes of competition.
What are the possible outcomes of competition?
1. Extinction of one species.
2. Resource partitioning: splitting the niche
3. Character displacement: Two similar species evolve in such a way as to become different from each other by accentuating their initial minor differences.
What is an example of character displacement?
Different beak sizes so birds can eat different foods.
What are some outcomes of predator-prey interactions?
1.Offset oscillations in the population sizes of the predator and prey.
2.Coevolution of predator and prey.
What is a keystone species?
A species whose presence in the community exerts a significant influence on the structure of that community.
Ex: Beavers build a dam on a stream and turn it into a marshy area.
What is a population?
A group of organisms of a single species adapted for a particular set of environmental conditions and living in the same place at the same time.
What characteristic features do populations have?
Density-how many?
Demography-what does pop. look like? age and sex ratio?
What is biotic potential?
The rate at which a population of a species will increase when there are no limits on its rate of growth.
What did Darwin recognize about population growth?
Organisms can out reproduce their environmental resources.
What are the mathematical terms that represent population growth?
dN/dt = riN
What does N represent?
The number of individuals in the population.
What does dN/dt represent?
The rate of change of population numbers over time.
What does r represent?
The intrinsic rate of increase for that population.
The intrinsic capacity for growth.
What is known and considered about the variable r?
It is very difficult to calculate.
It is the considered the difference between the birth rate and death rate.
What are some characteristics of a population’s innate capacity of growth?
It is exponential and can be expressed by a curve.
What is know about the rate of increase?
It remains constant, but actual increase accelerates rapidly as the population grows-like compounding interest.
What are some characteristics about population size?
1. No matter how rapidly populations grow, they eventually reach some environmental limit.
2. The population size "stabilizes" about the environmental limit.
3. The population size oscillates about K.
What is the environmental limit of the size of a population?
It is the carrying capacity, represented by a BIG K.
What are the factors that regulate population size?
1.Density-dependent factors
2.Density-independent factors
What are density-dependent factors dependent on.
Density. Haha.
The population size.
What are some examples of density-dependent factors?
1. Limited resources:food,space,breeding sites.
2. Disease
3. Increased aggression
4. Hormonal changes
What are density-independent factors?
Factors unrelated to population size. Natural disasters.
What are some examples of density-independent factors?
1. Floods
2. Drought
3. Fire
4. Mt. St. Helens
5. Global warming.
What is the best method to actual find out how many organisms are in a population?
Actually count. DUH.
What is the r strategy?
A strategy for those populations with a high intrinsic rate of increase.
Population growth is rapid and J-shaped.
What does the r strategy entail?
1.Reproduce several litters.
2.Reproduce early in life after rapid development.
3.Short generation time.
4.Large clutch/litter sizes.
5.Short lived.
6.Small populations can immediately go into rapid growth phase.
What are some examples of populations that use the r strategy?
Insects, rodents, weedy plants.
What is the K strategy?
A strategy for those populations with slow growth and low intrinsic rate of increase.
What does the K strategy entail?
1. Reproduce few, small litters or clutches.
2. Reproduce after extended development with parental care.
3. Long generation time.
4. Small clutch/litter sizes.
5. Long lived.
Small population takes long time to reach carrying capacity.
What are some examples of populations that use the K strategy?
Redwood trees, elephants, humans.
What is a dasypus novemcinctus?
Hairy feet.
Nine bands.
What is a procyon lotor?
Before dog.
To wash.

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