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muscle cell surrounding an opening to help flow
inheritance of acquired characteristics
-Jean Lamarck
-by striving to meet demands of their environments, acquire adaptions and pass them by heredity to their offspring.
The secretion of spicules is carried out by sclerocytes. Other cells, called spongocytes, secrete the spongin skeletat fibres when those are present.
perpetual change
-living world is neither
-always changing.
-organisms undergo modification across generations throughout time.
any of the animals that comprise the taxon Mesozoa, that includes small wormlike parasitic forms with an outer layer of somatic cells and an inner mass of reproductive cells, and that are often regarded as intermediate in organization between the protozoans and the metazoans although they may be degenerate descendents of more highly organized forms
connective tissue of the sponges
These cells are totipotent, which means that they can change into all of the other types of sponge cells. Archaeocytes ingest and digest food caught by the choanocyte collars and transport nutrients to the other cells of the sponge.
common descent
-all forms of life propagated from a common ancestor through branching of lineages
multiplication of species
evolution produces new species by splitting and transforming older ones.
species origniate by accumulation of many incremental changes over time.
natural selection
why organisms are constructed to meet demands of their environments.
history of an organism through its entire life
allopatric speciation
reproductive barriers
adaptive radiation
many diverse species from a common ancestor
-darwins finches
alternative forms of genes coding for same trait
allelic frequency
proportion of all copies of a particular gene in a population gene pool represented by particular cells
seperated populations of the same species
multicellular animals, evovled greater strucural complexity by combining cells int larger units.
An early embryonic form produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and consisting of a spherical layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity.
fluid filled cavity
An embryo at the stage following the blastula, consisting of a hollow, two-layered sac of ectoderm and endoderm surrounding an archenteron that communicates with the exterior through the blastopore.
false coelm
-which is not lined with a mesodermal epithelium.
without coelom
the body cavity of higher metazoans, between the body wall and intestine, lined with a mesodermal epithelium.
true coelm lined with peritoneum.
study of tissue
sheet of cells that covers an external or internal surface.
connective tissues
composed of relatively few cells, a great many extracellular fibers, and matrix
striated muscle
appears transversely striped bands
unspecialised cytoplasm of muscles
Any of the threadlike fibrils that make up the contractile part of a striated muscle fiber
branched protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses
the appendage of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
nerve fiber
threadlike process of a neuron, especially the prolonged axon that conducts nerve impulses.
branch of biology dealing with the form and structure of organisms.
typological species concept
species are defined by fixed,essential features
phylogenetic species concept
grouping distinct from other such groupings withtin which there are parental pattern of ancestery and descent
an organelle used in energy acquistion where oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor
mouth where phagocytosis occurs
multiple fission
division of cytoplasm
multiple fission leads to spore of sporozite formation
thin protective membrane in some protozoa
eye spot sensitive to light
phylum of protozoa in the kingdom Protista, comprising the ciliates.
some classifications considered a phylum of the kingdom Protista; in others included in the plant phylum Pyrrophyta
spore (oocyst)
A thick-walled structure in which sporozoan zygotes develop and that serves to transfer them to new hosts.
protozoan cell that arises from the schizogony of a parent sporozoan and may enter either the asexual or sexual phase of the life cycle.
Any of the minute undeveloped sporozoans produced by multiple fission of a zygote or spore, especially at the stage just before it infects a new host cell.
engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes
trabecular reticulum
A network of fibers involved in the drainage of the aqueous humor of the eye and located at the iridocorneal angle between the anterior chamber of the eye and the venous sinus of the sclera.
class calcarea
spicules of calcium carbonate all three canal systems
class hyalospongiae
six rayed silicous spicules
-syconoid and leuconoid
flagelated chambers
class demospongiae
skeleton of silceous spicules, or spongin, or both
-leuconoid type systems.

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