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Urinary System

Terms

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nephrotomy
incision into the kidney
pyel/o
basin
glomerul/o
glomerulus (little ball)
dips/o
thirst
urethral meatus
opening in teh urethra to the outside of the body
antispasmodic
drug that relieves spasm
urinary stress incotinence
involuntary discharge of urine with coughing, sneezing, or strained exercise
uremia, azotemia
excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood caused by kidney failure
creatinine, urine
test to determine the level of creatinine in the urine
creatinine
waste product of muscle metabolism, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine
specific gravity (SpGr)
measure of the concentration or dilution of urine
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies
bilirubin
chemical test used to detect bilirubin in the urine; seen in gallbladder and liver disease
anuria
absence of urine formation
analgesic
drug that relieves pain
kidney tansplantation, renal transplantation
transfer of a kidney from the body of one person (donor) to another
creatinine, serum
test to determine the level of creatinine in the blood, useful in assessing kidney function
py/o
pus
albumin/o
protein
nephrolithotomy
incision into the kidney for the removal of stones
pyuria
presence of white cells in the urine, usually indicating infection
calices (calyces)
ducts that carry urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis (kalyx = cup of a flower)
stent placement
use of a device (stent) to hold open vessels or tubes (e.g., an obstructed ureter)
creatinine clearance testing
measurement of the level of creatinine in the blood and a 24-hour urine specimen to determine the rate that creatinine is "cleared" from the blood by the kidneys
antibiotic
drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
nephr/o, ren/o
kidney
urethrocystitis
inflammation of the urethra and bladder
pyelonephritis
inflammation of teh renal pelvis
hemodialysis
method of removing impurities by pumping the patient's blood through a dialyzer, the specialized filter of the artificial kidney machine (hemodialyzer)
glomerulus
little ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
urethr/o
urethra
nocturia
urination at night
anuresis
inability to pass urine
kidney dialysis
methods of filtering impurities from the blood, replacing the function of one or both kidneys lost in renal failure
intracorporeal lithotripsy
method of destroying stones within the urinary tract using electrical energy discharges transmitted to a probe within a flexible endoscope; most commonly used to pulverize bladder stones
voiding (urinating) cystourethrogram (VCU) or (VCUG)
x-ray of the bladder and urethra taken during urination
Bowman's capsule
the top part of the nephron that encloses the glomerulus
cortex
outer part of the kidney (cortex = bark)
urethral stenosis
narrowed condition of the urethra
scout film
plain x-ray take to detect any obvious pathology before further imaging (e.g., a KUB before an IVP)
nephrorrhaphy
suture of an injured kidney
resectoscope
urologic endoscope inserted through the urethra to resect (cut and remove) lesions of the bladder, urethra, or prostate
kidney biopsy (Bx), renal biopsy
removal of kidney tissue for pathologic examination
continent urostomy
an internal reservoir (pouch) constructed from a segment of intestine which diverts urine through an opening (stoma) that is brought throuhg the abdominal wall - a valve is created internally to prevent leakage and the patient empties the pouch by catheterization
nephritis
inflammation of the kidney
nephrectomy
excision of a kidney
microscopic findings
microscopic identification of abnormal constituents present in the urine (e.g., red blood cells, white blood cells, and casts); reported per high or low power field (hpf or lpf)
urologic endoscopic surgery
use of specialized endoscopes (e.g., resectoscope) within the urinary tract to perform various surgical procerduers such as resection of a tumor, repair of an obstruction, stone retrieval, placement of a stent, and so on
hilum
indented opening in the kidney where vessels enter and leave
retrograde pyelogram (RP)
x-ray of the ureters, bladder, and kidney taken after contrast medium is administered backward through a small catheter through a cystoscope to detect the presence of stones, obstruction, and so on
orthotopic bladder neobladder
bladder constructed from portions of intestine connected to the urethra, allowing "natural" voiding
pH
measure of the acidity or alkalinity of urine
abdominal sonogram
ultrasound image of the urinary tract, including the kidney and bladder
meat/o
opening
ketones
chemical test used to detect the presence of ketone bodies in the urine; positive test indicates fats are being used by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs in starvation or in an uncontrolled diabetic state
ketone bodies, ketone compounds
acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are products of metabolism that appear in the urine from the body's abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as occurs in uncontrolled diabetes or starvation
nitrite
chemical test to determine the presence of bacteria in the urine
ureteropelvic junction
point of connection between the renal pelvis and ureter
cystoscopy
examintation of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
occult blood, urine
chemical test for the presence of hidden blood in the urine resulting from red blood cell hemolysis; indicates bleeding in the kidneys (occult = hidden)
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
procedure using ultrasound outside the body to bombard and disintergrate a stone within; most commolny used to treat urinary stones above the bladder
hematuria
presence of blood in teh urine
pyeloplasty
surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis
bacteri/o
bacteria
urine culture and sensitivity (C&S)
isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium to propagate the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identtified along with drugs to which they are sensitive
nephron
microscopic functional units of the kidney, comprised of kidney cells and capillaries, each capable of forming urine
albumin (alb) protein
chemical test used to detect the presence of albumin in the urine
ureter/o
ureter
urea
waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB)
abdominal x-ray of kidney, ureter, and bladder typically used as a scout film before doing an IVP
medulla
inner part of the kidney
nocturnal enuresis
bedwetting during sleep
urine
fluid produced by the kidneys, containing water and waste products
ur/o, urin/o
urine
glomerulonephritis
form of nephritis involving the glomerulus
blood ures nitrogen (BUN)
blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood; a high BUN indicates the kidney's inability to excrete urea
incotinence
involuntary discharge of urine or feces
albuminuria, proteinuria
presence of albumin in the urine, such as occurs in renal disease or in normal urine after heavy exercise
urinalysis (UA)
physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine
hydronephrosis
pooling of urine in dilated areas of the renal pelvis and calices of one or both kidneys caused by an obstructed outflow of urine
renal pelvis
the basinlike portion of the ureter within the kidney
renal angiogram (arteriogram)
x-ray of the renal artery made after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery
glucose (sugar)
chemical test used to detect sugar in the urine; used most oftern to screen for diabetes
lith/o
stone
urobilinogen
chemical test used to detect bile pigment in the urine - increased amounts seen in gallbladder and liver disease
cyst/o, vesic/o
bladder or sac
ureter
the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
enuresis
involuntary discharge of urine, usually referring to a lack of bladder control
urinary retention
retention of urine caused by and inability to void (urinate) naturally because of spasm or obstruction
intravenous pyelogram (IVP), intravenous urogram
x-rays of the urinary tract taken after an iodine contrast medium is injected into the bloodstream; the contrast passes through the kidney and may reveal an obstruction, evidence of trauma, and so on
renal tubule
the stem protion of the nephron
nephrosis
degenerative disease of the renal tubules
ketonuria
presence of ketone bodies in the urine
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
nephrolithiasis
presence of a renal stone or stones
kidneys
two structures located on each side of the lumbar region that filter blood and secrete impurities, forming urine
diuretic
drug that increases the secretion of urine
bacteriuria
presence of bacteria in the urine
dysuria
painful urination
urethra
single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
urinary tract infection (UTI)
invasion of pathogenic organsims (commonly bacteria) in the urinary tract, especially the urethra and bladder; symptons include dysuria, urinary frequence, and malaise
radiography
x-ray studies commonly used in urology
urinary bladder
sac that holds the urine
noncontinent ileal conduit
removal of a portion of the ileum to use as a conduit to which the ureters are attached at one end; the other end is brought through an opening (stoma) created in teh abdomen - urine drains continually into an external appliance (bag)
peritoneal dialysis
method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; a catheter inserted in the peritoneal cavity delivers cleansing fluid (dialysate) that is washed in and out in cycles
gluc/o, gylc/o
sugar
urinary diversion
creation of a temporary or permanent diversion of the urinary tract to provide a new passage theough which urine exits the body; used to treat defects or disease such as bladder cancer
oliguria
scanty production of urine

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