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SAT Subject- Biology E/M R-T

Terms

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sex linkage
occurs when certain traits are determined by genes on sex chromosomes
spindle
a structure that arises during mitosis and helps separate the chromosomes; composed of tubulin
thrombin
a substance that participates in the clotting of blood in vertebrates
rickettsia
a kind of microorganism that is between a virus and a bacterium; parasitic within the cells of insects and ticks
tissue
a mass of cells that have similar structures and perform similar functions
stamen
the part of the flower that produces pollen
stoma
a microscopic opening located in the epidermis of a leaf and formed by a pair of guard cells
retina
the innermost tissue layer of the eyeball that contains light-sensitive receptor cells
recessive
pertains to a gene or characteristic that is masked when a dominant allele is present
tundra
the biome located between the polar region and the tiaga
small intestine
the site of most digestion of nutrients and absorption of digested nutrients
spermatogenesis
the process of forming the sperm cells from primary spermatocytes
sex chromosome
there are two kinds of sex chromosomes, X and Y; XX signifies a female and XY signifies a male
sinus
a space in the body
sensory neuron
a neuron that picks up impulses from receptors and transmits them to the spinal cord
seminiferous tubules
structures in the testes that produce sperm and semen
synapse
the junction or gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron
species
a group of populations that can interbreed
stigma
the uppermost portion of pistil upon which pollen grains alight
transcription
the fist stage of protein synthesis, in which the information coded in the DNA base is transcribed onto a strand of mRNA
rhodopsin
the pigment in rod cells that causes light sensitivity
sucrase
an enzyme that acts upon sucrose
translation
the final stages of protein synthesis in which the genetic code of nucleotide sequences is translated into a sequences of amino acids
transpiration
the evaporation of water from leaves or other exposed surfaces of plants
serum
the fluid that remains after fibrinogen is removed from the blood plasma of vertebrates
synaptic terminal
the swelling at the end of an axon
thymus
a ductless gland in upper chest region concerned with immunity and the maturation of lymphocytes
reticulum
a network or mesh of fibrils, fibers or filaments
thrombokinase
the enzyme released from the blood platelets in vertebrates during clotting
regeneration
the ability of certain animals to regrow missing body parts
systole
the contraction of the atria or ventricles of the heart
taiga
a terrestrial habitat zone that is characterized by large tracts of coniferous forests, long and cold winters, and short summers
sphincter
a ring-shaped muscle that is capable of closing a tubular opening by constriction
style
a stalklike or elongated body part, usually pointed at one end
respiration
a chemical action that releases energy from glucose to form ATP
saprophyte
an organism that obtains its nutrients from dead organisms
substrate
a substance that is acted upon by an enzyme
smooth muscle
involuntary muscle
testes
the male gonads that produce sperm and male hormones
recombinant DNA technology
technology that allows for manipulation of genetic material
symbiosis
the living together of two organisms in an intimate relationship
semicircular canals
fluid-filled structures in the inner ear that are associated with the sense of balance
self-pollination
the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil of the same flower
taxonomy
the science of classification of living things
thorax
the part of the body of an animal that is between the neck or head and the abdomen
root hair
outgrowths of a root's epidermal cells that allow for greater surface area for absorption of nutrients and water
stomach
the portion of alimentary canal in which some protein digestion occurs
test cross
the breeding of an organism with a homozygous recessive in order to determine whether an organism is homozygous dominant or heterozygous dominant for a given trait
rod
a cell in the retina that is sensitive to weak light
thermoregulation
the ways in which organisms regulate their internal heat
secondary tissue
tissue formed by the differentiation of cambium that causes a growth in width of a plant system
trypsin
an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine
sporophyte
an organism that produces spores; a phase in the diploid-haploid life cycle that alternates with a gametophyte phase
spore
a reproductive cell that is capable of developing directly into an adult
spiracle
the external opening of the trachea in insects
Rh factor
an antigen in blood; can cause erythroblastosis fetalis when the mother is Rh- and the fetus is Rh+
trachea
an air-conducting tube
seminal fluid
semen
telophase
a mitotic stage in which nuclei reform and nuclear membrane reappears
thryoxin
a hormone of the thyroid that regulates basal metabolism
selective breeding
the creation of certain strains of specific traits through control of breeding
thalamus
a lateral region of the forebrain
translocation
the transfer of a piece of chromosome to another chromosome
respiratory center
the area of medulla that regulates the rate of breathing
tetrad
a pair of chromosome pairs present during the first metaphase of meiosis
rhizome
an underground stem
synergistic
describes organisms that are cooperative in action, such as hormones or other growth factors that reinforce each other's activity
turgor pressure
the pressure exerted by the contents of a cell against the cell membrane or cell wall
thyroid
an endocrine gland located in the neck that produces thyroxin
RNA
an abbreviation of ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid in which the sugar is ribose; a product of DNA transcription that serves to control certain cell activities
reduction
a change from a diploid nucleus to a haploid nucleus, as in meiosis
steroid
one of a class of organic compounds that contains a molecular skeleton of four fused rings of carbon
somatic cell
any cell that is not a reproductive cell
trilobite
a marine arthropod, now extinct, that lived during the Paleozoic era
stroma
a dense fluid within the chloroplast in which CO2 is converted into sugars in photosynthesis
sympathetic
pertaining to a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system
thoracic duct
a major lymphatic that empties lymph into a vein in the neck
thymine
a pyrimidine component of nucleic acids and nucleotides; pairs with adenine in DNA
synapsis
the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
ribosome
an organelle in the cytoplasm that contains RNA; serves as the site of protein synthesis

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