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Chapter 35

A study guide including the hierachy of organs, tissues and cells; how meristems generate cells for new organs; roots and shoots; secondary growth; and morphogenesis.


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lateral roots
branch roots that come off the taproot
includes all tissues external to the vascular cambium
innermost layer of the cortex
transports sugars to the roots
vascular cambium
adds layers of vascular tissue or xylem and phloem
meristem identity genes
vegetative growth to flowering is called?
ground tissue system
tissue that are neither dermal nor vascular
leaf primorida
finger-like projections along the sides of the apical meristems
primary growth
the process that enables the plant to grow in length
the condition of having structural or chemical differences at opposite ends of an organisms
processes lead to the development of the body form and organization
dermal tissue system
plant's outer protective covering
tissue system
a functional unit connecting all the plant's organs
secondary growth
the process that enables the plant to grow in thickness
the vascular tissue of leaves
axillary bud
a structure that can form a lateral root (branch)
the ground tissue of a leaf
protective tissues that replace the epidermis in woody plants
the main photosynthetic organ
cells that remain as sources of new cells
a term describing a plant organ that grows in an unusual location
vascular bundles
seperate strands containing xylem and phloem in leaves and stems
conducts water and dissolved minerals upwards from roots into the shoots
the stem segments between nodes
species accumulating adaptations by natural selection
a group of cells with a common function, structure, or both
fibrous root system
a mat of generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface, with no root functioning as the main one
positional information
pattern formation in the form of signals
vascular cylider
root stele of xylem and phloem
vegetative growth
production of non reproductive leaves, stems and roots
the vascular tissue of a root or stem
zone of cell division
root apical meristem and its derivatives
cork cambium
replaces epiderm with periderm
the points where leaves are attached
ground tissue that is external to the vascualr tissue
plants that are capable of indeterminate growth
cells displaced from the meristem continure to divide until the cells they produce become specialized within developing tissues
part of a leaf that is sharp (think of the leaf)
apical meristems
provide additional cells that enable the plant to grow in length
require two years for life cycle
secondary plant body
consists of the tissues produced by the vascular cambium and cork cambium
preprophase band
microtubules in the cytoplasm become concentrated into a ring
primary plant body
the results of primary and secondary growth (only youngest in woody plants)
determinate growth
growth cessing at a certain size
multicellular organ that anchors a vascular plant in the soil, absorbs minerals and water and often stores carbs
complete life cycle in a year
root system
what is underground (consists of organs that take in nutrients)
single layer of tightly packed cells
an organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes
guard cells
regulares the opening and closing of stomata
zone of differentiation
cells complete their differentiation and become distinct cell types
stalk that joins the leaf to the stem at a node
organ identity genes
regulates the development of floral patterns
apical bud
terminal bud with developing leaves and compact series of nodes and internodes
shoot system
stems and leaves
one main vertical root that develops from an embryonic root
require many years for life cycle
root hairs
increase the surface area of the root for absorbtion
vascular tissue system
long-distance transport of materials between root and shoot systems
phase changes
the morphological changes that arise from the transitions in shoot apical meristem
consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions
a waxy coating on the epidermal surface to prevent water loss
lateral meristems
provide additional cells that enable the plant to grow in thickness
ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue
outermost layer of the cortex
indeterminate growth
growth occuring throughout a plant's life
allow gas exchange between the surrounding air and the photosynthetic cells inside the leaf
apical dominance
the inhibition of axillary buds by an apical bud
ABC model
flower formation in a diagram with 3 different genes
root cap
tip of a root which protects the delicate apical meristem as it pushes through the soil
zone of elongation
root cells elongate

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