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Plants AP BIO

Terms summarizing plant vocab

Terms

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Pith
Plant tissue at center of stem for nutrient storage
Antheridium
Male sex organ where sperm are made
Function of Leaves
1) Spines are for protection 2) Water storage 3) Trapping prey such as venus flytrap (tiny hairs for trapping) and pitcher plant (slippery slope enzymes)
Difference between stoma & guard cell?
Stoma: hole on leaf for gas exchange // Guard Cells: Cells on the side of the stoma that regulate opening/closing
Gravitropism
How plants respond to gravity: ex) stems have negative gravitropism but roots have + gravitropism
Short-day plants
Require long period of darkness (fall)
Long-day plants
Require short period of darkness (short-night plant) (spring & summer)
Pollen Tube
Contains 2 sperm that tries to reach the ovule. This is a GAMETOPHYTE generation (n)
How does a Plant keep track of time?
By converting Pr --> Pfr during light exposure and reverting Pfr --> Pr during the night
ethylene
a GAS! promotes fruit ripening [positive feedback], Apoptosis for programmed cell death; leaf abscission; works in opposition to auxin
brassinosteroids
STOPS root growth; retard leaf abscission, promote xylem differentiation
How do plants grow?
Embryonic tissues called meristems continually divide during cell growth
Primary Growth
Increase of length of plant by apical meristems at the tips of roots and stems
gibberellins
Promotes stem & leaf elongation
Auxin (natural IAA)
Promotes plant growth & phototropism
Root Hair
An extension of a plant root that has an increased surface area for the absorption of water and dissolved minerals from the soil
Vascular Cambium
Tissue that produces new vascular cells; between the xylem and phloem in dicot stems.
Cork cambium
the cork cambium is located just inside the cork (bark)covering of a woody stem. As the plant shoot or root grows in width, the cork cambium produces more cork to serve as protective covering for the plant.
Petal
Modified leaf, usually brightly colored, that attracts insects and other pollen- carrying animals to the flower.
Phototropism
How plants respond to light: always towards it b/c unequal distribution of auxin
Double Fertilization
joining of haploid gametes to create a diploid zygote, and the simultaneous joining of a second sperm cell with a fusion nucleus to create a triploid nucleus (which becomes the endosperm).
Stoma
A small epidermal pore, surrounded by two guard cells, through which gases diffuse in and out of a leaf.
Thigmotropism
How plants respond to touch ex) ivy around a post
Sieve tube elements
A living conductive cell of phloem.
Ploem
Living cells at maturity that transfer sugar and photosynthesis products throughout plant
Microspores (pollen grains)
Develops into male gametophytes (n)
Phytochrome
Light receptor pigment in photoperiodism. Pr (red-light absorbing) vs Pfr (infrared light absorbing) In short-day plants, it stops flowering but in long-day plants it induces flowering
Transpiration
Plants losing water through evaporation
Guard Cell
One of the two epidermal cells that surround the stoma of the leaf and regulate gas exchange by opening and closing the stoma (due to Changes in Potassium K+ level)
Vegetative Propagation: Tubers
Underground stems ex) potatoes
Polar Nuclei
2 nuclei, within the same cell, created from the mitotic division of the megaspore during angiosperm reproduction; unite in the ovule to form a fusion nucleus, which gives rise to endosperm when fertilized
The female reproductive structure is called___ and the male reproductive structure is called ______
F: Carpel/Pistil M: Stamen
Adventitious Root
Above ground roots that cling to things except for soil
abscicic acid (ABA)
inhibits growth; seed dormancy
Vegetative Propagation: Runners
Horizontal stems above ground ex) strawberries
Vegetative Propagation & Grafting
Asexual reproduction in which plants produce genetically identical offshoots (clones) of themselves, which then develop into independent plants Ex) tubers, runners & bulbs
Difference between stele & Cortex
Cortex is the tissue btwn epidermis & vascular tissue separated from the stele by the Casparian Strip. Stele is the inner central vascular tissue
Endosperm
A substance (3n), formed from a triploid nucleus in angiosperm reproduction, that nourishes a developing embryo within a seed.
Vegetative Propagation: Bulbs
Short underground stems ex) onions
Megaspores
Develops into female gamteophytes (n)
Contrast Primary and Secondary Growth
Primary: apical meristems elongates plant vertically // Secondary: Lateral meristems increases the width
Day-neutral plants
Don't flower in response to daylight changes...They use other cues such as water or temp.
The Pistil includes the ____ and the stamen includes the _____
Pistil: ovary, style, stigma and Stamen: anther and filament
Secondary Growth
Lateral meristems that increase the width of the plant
Cotyledon
Leaf seed of plant embryo; monocot embryos have 1, and dicot embryos have 2
What is the most common cell type in a plant?
Parenchymal cell found almost in any part of the plant that is alive at maturity
cytokinins
Cell division and differentiation (tissue growth)
Photoperiodism
Plant flower response to changes in amount of daylight & darkness (circadian rhythm)
Name 3 plant tissues
1) Dermal tissue covers & protects plants--endodermis (Casparian strip w. suberin), epidermis / cuticle 2) Vascular tissue--xylem & phloem (transports nutrients) 3) Ground tissue--support, storage & photosynthesis
Archegonium
Female sex organ where eggs are made
Vegetative Propagation: Grafting
Cutting a stem and attaching it to related plant ex) seedless oranges
What organs do flowering plants have?
Stamen (male parts), Pistil (F parts), Sepals, Petals (SSPP)
Xylem
Dead cells at maturity that transfer water from roots to shoot

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