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BIOL 1408


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Scientific study of life.
Smallest unit that displays the properties of life; composed of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.
plasma membrane
Membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins; functions to regulate the entrances and exit of molecules from a cell.
Golgi apparatus
Organelle consisting of saccules and vesicles that processes, packages, and distributes molecules about or from the cell.
Rough ER
Membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in cells; has attached ribosomes.
smooth ER
Membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in eukaryotic cells; lacks attached ribosomes.
RNA and protein in two subunits; site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
Membrane-bounded organelle in which ATP molecules are produced during the process of cellular respiration.
Membrane-bounded organelle in algae and plants with chlorophyll-containing membranous thylakoids; where photosynthesis takes place.
Sequence of events that results in gas exchange between the cells of the body and the environment.
Process occurring usually within chloroplasts whereby chlorophyll-containing organelles trap solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate
Calvin cycle
Portion of photosynthesis that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and can occur in the dark it uses the products of the light reactions to reduce CO2 to a carbohydrate.
light reactions
Portion of photosynthesis that captures solar energy and takes place in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts; it produces ATP and NADPH.
citric acid cycle
Cycle of reactions in mitochondria that begins with cirtic acid. It breaks down an acetyl group and produces CO2, ATP, NADH, and FADH2.
Anaerobic breakdown of glucose that results in a gain of 2 ATP and the end product of pyruvate.
electron transport chain
Passage of electrons along a series of electron carriers from a higher to lower energy level; the energy released is used for the synthesis of ATP.
adenosine triphosphate: Nucleotide with three phosphate groups. The breakdown of ATP into ADP + P makes energy available for energy-requiring processes in cells.
Process in which a parent nucleus produces two daughter nuclei, each having the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
Type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations.
Possessing two identical alleles for a particular trait.
Possessing unlike alleles for a particular trait.
dominant allele
Allele that exerts its phenotype effect in the heterozygote; it masks the expression of the recessive allele.
recessive allele
Allele that exerts its phenotype effect only in the homozygote; its expression is masked by the dominant allele.
Malignant tumor whose nondifferentiated cells exhibit loss of contact inhibition, uncontrolled growth, and the ability to invade tissue and metastasize.
Formation of new blood vessels; one mechanism by which cancer spreads.
development of cancer
Spread of cancer from the place of origin throughout the body; caused by the ability of cancer cells to migrate and invade tissues.
Mitotic phase during which chromatin condenses so that chromosomes appear; chromosomes are scattered.
Mitotic phase during which daughter chromosomes move toward the poles of the spindle.
Mitotic phase during which daughter cells are located at each pole.
Division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and meiosis
cell palte
Structure across a dividing plant cell that signals the location of new plasma membranes and cell walls.
Polysaccaride that is the major complex carbohydrate in plant cell walls.
Strong but flexible nitrogenous polysaccaride found in the exoskeleton of arthopods.
Unique molecule found in bacterial cell walls.
Simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis (glucose, etc)
Sugar that contains two units of a monosaccharide; eg maltose.
Polymer made from sugar monomers; the polysaccharides starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose monomers.
Two or more amino acids joined together by covalent bonding.
Molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides; a macronutrient in the diet that is digested to amino acids used by cells to synthesize cellular proteins.
amino acid
Organic molecule composed of an amino group and an acid group; covalently bonds to produce peptide molecules.
fatty acid
Molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group.
Class of organic compounds that tends to be soluble in nonpolar solvents; includes fats and oils.
Molecule that forms the phospholipid bilayer of plasma membranes; has a polar, hydrophilic head bonded to two nonpolar; hydrophobic tails.
semipermeable membrane
Membrane which only allows certain molecules and ions to pass.
nucleic acid
Polymer of nucleotides; both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.
Deoxyribonucleic acid: Nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all organisms.
Process whereby ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to produce a polypeptide with a particular sequence of amino acids.
Process whereby a DNA strand serves as a template for the formation of mRNA.
DNA replication
Synthesis of a new DNA double helix prior to mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cells and during prokaryotic fission in prokaryotic cells.
spiral structure observed in DNA
organism with membrane-bound nuclei and membranous organelles.
organism which does not possess a membrane-bound nucleus.
membrane-bound organelle which contains all of the DNA for eukaryotic organisms.
Region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it is not bounded by a nuclear envelope.
long slender extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, and sperm.
cytoplasmic extensions of amoeboid protists; used for locomotion and engulfing food.
short hairlike projections from the plasma membrane, occurring usually in larger numbers.
in bacteria, small, bristle like fibers on bacterial cell surface that enable bacteria to adhere to surfaces.
self-duplicating ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria.
transfer of genetic material from one cell to another.
Exchange of DNA between bacteria by means of a bacteriophage.
Taking up of extraneous genetic material from the environment by bacteria
Member of the kingdom Protista
Chemoheterotrophic, unicellular protist that moves by flagella, cilia, or pseudopodia, or is immobile.
Type of protist that carries on photosynthesis; unicellular forms are a part of phytoplankton, and multicellular forms are called seaweed
Asexual reproductive or resting cell capable of developing into a new organism without fusion with another cell, in contrast to a gamete.
Spore formed within a cell; certain bacteria form endospores.
binary fission
Splitting of a parent cell into two daughter cells; serves as an asexual form of reproduction in bacteria.
Saprotrophic decomposer; the body is made up of filaments called hyphae that form a mass called a mycelium.
filaments of the vegetative body of a fungus.
Tangled mass of hyphal filaments composing the vegetative body of a fungus.
multicellular, usually photosynthetic, organism belonging to the plant kingdom.
The nonvascular plants - the mosses, liverworts, and hornworts; these plants have no vascular tissue and occur in moist locations.
vascular tissue
Transport tissue in plants, consisting of xylem and phloem.
Vascular tissue that transports water and mineral solutes upward through the plant body; it contains vessel elements and tracheids.
Vascular tissue that conducts organic solutes in plants; contains sieve-tube members and companion cells.
Diploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation.
Haploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces gametes that unite to form a diploid zygote.
haploid sex cell; eg egg and sperm.
Fusion of sperm and egg nuclei, producing a zygote that develops into a new individual.
One of the two types of spores produced by seed plants; develops into a female gametophyte.
One of the two types of spored produced by seed plants; develops into a male gametophyte.
In seed plants, a structure that contains the female gametophyte and has the potential to develop into a seed.
In flowering plants, nutritive storage tissue that is derived from the union of a sperm nucleus and polar nuclei in the embryo sac.
Reproductive organ of a flowering plant, consisting of several kinds of modified leaves arranged in concentric rings and attached to a modified stem called the receptacle.
Outermost leaflike covering of the flower; usually green in color.
In flowering plants, the portion of the flower that consists of a filament and an anther containing pollen sacs where pollen is produced.
flower part that occurs just inside the sepals; often conspicuously colored to attract pollinators.
In flowering plants, pollen-bearing portion of stamen.
End-to-end chains of cells that form as cell division occurs in only one plane; in plants the elongated stalk of a stamen.
Ovule-bearing unit that is a part of a pistil.
Female gonad in animals that produces an egg and female sex hormones; in flowering plants, the enlarged, ovule-bearing portion of the carpel that develops into a fruit.
In flowering plants, portion of the carpel where pollen grains adhere and germinate before fertilization can occur.
Elongated, central portion of the carpel between the ovary and stigma.
The sepals collectively; outermost flower whorl.
Petals, collectively; usually the conspicuously colored flower whorl.
Noncellular parasitic agent consisting of an outer capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid.
Protective protein container of the genetic material of a virus.
Virus that infects bacteria.
reverse transcriptase
Enzyme used by retroviruses to transcribe RNA to DNA.
RNA virus containing the enzyme reverse transcriptase that carries out RNA/DNA transcription.
Process by which substances are moved into the cell from the environment by phagocytosis (cellular eating) or pinocytosis (cellular drinking); includes receptor-mediated endocytosis.
facilitated diffusion
Passive transfer of a subtstance into or out of a cell along a concentration gradient by a process that requires a carrier
Diffusion of water through a differentially permeable membrane.
Contents of a cell between the nucleus (nucleoid region of bacteria) and the plasma membrane.
Liquid found inside the cells.
lower solute (more water) concentration than the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cells to gain water by osmosis.
Higher solute concentration (less water) than the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to lose water by osmosis.
Solution that is equal in solute concentration to that of the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to neither lose nor gain water by osmosis.
Infectious strand of RNA devoid of a capsid and much smaller than a virus.
Infectious particle consisting of protein only and no nucleic acid.
Disease-causing agent such as viruses, parasitic bacteria, fungi, and animals.
Explanation of the evolution of eukaryotic organelles by phagocytosis of prokaryotes.
Symbiotic relationship in which one species (the parasite) obtains nutrients from another species (the host) but does not usually kill the host.
Spore-producing plant or fungal structure.
mycorrhizal fungi
Mutualistic relationship between fungal hyphae and roots of vascular plants; also called mycorrhizal association.
root nodules
Structure on plant root that contains nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
nitrogen fixation
Process by which atmospheric nitrogen is bound into organic compounds.
Photosynthetic bacteria that contain chlorophyll and release O2; formerly called blue-green algae.
Waxy layer covering the epidermis of plants that protects the plant against water loss and disease-causing organisms.
stoma (pl. stomata)
small opening between two guard cells on the underside of leaf epidermis through which gases pass.
Inner, thickest layer of a leaf consisting of palisade and spongy mesophyll; the site of most of photosynthesis.
In plants, tissue that covers roots, leaves, and stems of nonwoody organisms.
pollen tube
In seed plants, a tube that forms when a pollen grain lands on the stigma and germinates. The tube grows, passing between the cells of the stigma and the style to reach the egg inside an ovule, where fertilization occurs.
pollen grain
In seed plants, structure that is derived from a microspore and develops into a male gametophyte.
Flowering plant group; members have one embryonic leaf (cotyledon), parallel-veined leaves, scattered vascular bundles, flower parts in threes or multiples of three, and other characteristics.
Flowering plant group; members have two embryonic leaves (cotyledons), net-veined leaves, vascular bundles in a ring, flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples, and other characteristics.
Tissue that lines hollow organs and covers surfaces.
tight junctions
Junction between cells when adjacent plasma membrane proteins join to form an impermeable barrier.
gap junction
Junction between cells formed by the joining of two adjacent plasma membranes; it lends strength and allows ions, sugars, and small molecules to pass between cells.
Nerve cell that characteristically has three parts: dendrites, cell body, and an axon.
nervous system
Organ system consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves that coordinates the other organ systems of the body.

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