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STP Exam


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Newbery Medal
The Newbery Medal is given annually by the American Library Association to the year's most distinguished book written by an American.It was named for John Newbery, a bookseller and book publisher who wrote what is considered the first children's book, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, in 1744.
desired outcomes.
James Cooper
The Last of the Mohicans.
students read looking for answers to their questions.
context clue
is information from the immediate sentence, paragraph, or surrounding words that might help readers determine the meaning and/or pronunciation of an unknown word.
Functions of print
awareness of the uses of print: making shopping lists, reading street signs, conveying instructions.
children begin to use real letters, usually capital letters, to represent their meaning.
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
originated about 1000AD. It is a romance; it is a story about brave men and defenseless women.
scope and sequence
A curriculum plan, usually in chart form, in which a range of instructional objectives, skills, etc., is organized according to the successive levels at which they are taught.
Reader response
responding to literature helps to increase the level of comprehension for the material.
Picture writing
children draw pictures instead of using letters to tell a story or convey meaning.
Greek Mythology
collaborative learning
when students work with others to achieve a specific goal, purpose, or outcome.
Demeter and Persophone
Greek Mythology
Writer's Workshop
learning situation in which the teacher assits the students in developing their writing by learning the writing process and introducing different writing genres.
Phonemic awareness
an exclusively oral language activity. Phonemic awareness refers to the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds called phonemes. Instruction in phonemic awareness should be viewed as an important element of a balanced reading program in the early elementary grades.
Graphic organizer
a diagram or pictorial device that shows relationships
Solving words
emphasizing what the child already knows will help in solving words and interpreting the story.
Graphic organizers
a map or graph that summarizes information to be learned, and is distributed to students before beginning a new chapter or unit of study.
students tests themselves on the material. Anything difficult to remember should be rehearsed aloud or recited. The multi-sensory experience helps the difficult material to move into short-term, and with practice, long-term memory.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Originally "Schneewittchen", one of the Folk tales collected and published by the Brothers Grimm.
Bloom's taxonomy
There are six categories of cognitive objectives organized by complexity: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.
Learner pauses to think about, and organize information gathered from reading, discussions, or other activities.
technique used to help remember names or concepts.
means that reading and writing are related and are reciprocal processes that influence each other.
Daughter of Earth
(1929) is an autobiographical novel by the American author and journalist Agnes Smedley.
critical thinking
requires a student to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information.
Reciprocal teaching
means that students take turns explaining to each other and learning from each other.
Children's literature
the first books written for children appeared during the 1700's
Arabian Nights
a collection of folktales in Arabic dating from the 10th century
Alphabetic principle
matching elemental sounds and the letters that represent themThe knowledge that speech sounds can be represented by a letter or letters and that when a given sound occurs anywhere in a word, it can be represented by the same letters..
Repeated reading
reading the same stories that children enjoy several times helps them with their comprehension, listening skills, and recognition of sight words.
Caldecott Medal
to the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children published that year. It was named in honor of nineteenth-century English illustrator Randolph Caldecott.
means the information will move from your working memory to your long term memory
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
writing non-stop for a period of time in order to generate ideas
response log
students write responses to what they have read.
the repetition of sounds, most often consonant sounds, at the beginning of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words.
also known as a scoring guide. It is used as a set of guidelines for evaluating a student's work.
Sight vocabulary
words that a reader recognizes without having to sound them out.
Early clues about what will happen later.
Central character( person, animal, or personified object) in the story.
emergent literacy theory
children grow into reading and writing with no real beginning or ending point, reading and writing develop concurrently and in interrelated ways, and the learning process starts long before children enter school and does not depend on mastery of letter-sound skills.
a piece of work that is created by a student and put in his/her portfolio.
Text innovation (rewrites)
rewriting a story helps children to understand how they can create stories and helps them understand the meaning of stories.
Vocabulary Enricher
a role in literature groups. This individual locates four words to look up and find their definitions.
Picture books
Are the picture books easy to follow, and so they tell a story in an organized way, so that children can understand the story without the use of the written word?
a belief in what someone can do or accomplish.
Invented spelling
helps develop phonetic awareness in children. They may spell their favorite words with a single letter.
stands for Daily Oral Language. Students correct mistakes in sentences.
the process of developing teaching and learning styles and materials related to the different levels of pupil understanding and ability.
learning contract
A form of individualized, active learning, in which the student proposes a course of study to satisfy an academic requirement and a teacher checks and approves the contract.
the process of correcting and making changes to your rough draft
helps readers understand the text on a deeper level by eliminating confusion and stimulating interest in the topic
student-centered learning
the students and their needs are the focus and the teacher becomes the facilitator among them. The students are active participants in the learning process.
Social interaction
interaction between children and adults helps children grasp the meaning of letters and sounds of letters.
thin question
a question that has a one or two word answer. It is usually a yes/no question or a recall of information.
used to describe a student who demonstrates a high level of ability.
relates to the sentence structure, or grammar, and what kind of word normally fills a given slot (noun, adverb, adjective, etc). clues are provided by the structure of the sentence.
a learning experience.
Johnny Tremaine
a 1943 children's novel by Esther Forbes, retells in narrative form the final years in Boston, Massachusetts prior to the outbreak of the American Revolution.
students reflect on their work or performance.
Work produced by students and used by instructors for purposes of interaction and also evaluation.
Common Assessment Framework
is a method for organizing the teaching/learning experiences of students by establishing subject outcomes and measuring the attainment of these with well defined performance criteria.
an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives
Dragons Dragons:& Other Creatures that Never Were
Collection of poems
Historical fiction about a girl working in a cloth factory in Lowell, Mass
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
is the first stage of the writing process. It is when a writer gathers his/her thoughts before writing. This can be done by making a list, web, outline, etc.
stands for Drop Everything And Read.
Realistic Fiction
is imaginative writing that accurately reflects life either in the past or present. It has a prose narrative with a plot that unfolds through the character's actions, speech, and thoughts.
progress report
-also known as a mid-quarter. It is a report that shows the progress of your child. It is sent in the middle of each quarter.
The Newbury Award
Children's book award
cloze test
a student must fill in the blanks in a paragraph.
thick question
a question that requires more than a one or two word response. It causes a person to think.
decoding a word,
they are trying to make a connection between the written word and the idea or thing it explicitly represents, so they would be concerned with organizing ideas and generating questions to be researched.
stands for Learning Disability. This is a term in special education to describe a disorder in one of the basic psychological processes (listening, thinking, speaking, writing, spelling, etc).
heterogeneous grouping
organizing students with different ability levels.
Phenomenological misconception
The way in which phenomena appears to children can create misconceptions about the way things work in the physical sense.
Representing the main points of material in hierarchical format.
A teacher needs to consider the age of the students and select poetry that she/he believes they will be able to relate to and enjoy. For example, for younger children, a teacher may select poems that have more alliteration and repetition of words.
performance event
is "on demand" in that it is used for assessment purposes. It is a real-world, robust, problematic situation that monitors student progress towards the attainment of predetermined criteria.
grouping related items together; common memory strategy in early grade school and improves as our knowledge base expands
Reader response
asking children to respond to what has been read to them helps them understand that the purpose of reading is to understand the meaning of the words. It helps them understand that people can express themselves through writing, and that writing has meaning.
In education, a branch of knowledge based on the development and implementation of computers, software, and other technical tools, and the assessment and evaluation of students' educational outcomes resulting from their use of technology tools.
BD (Behavior Disorder)
A term used in special education to describe students who have an explained inability to learn, have problems relating to other children and adults, continually exhibit inappropriate behaviors or who have a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears about personal and school problems.
Word patterns
students who can recognize words patterns have a better chance of reading the words correctly. For example, when two vowels appear in a word and one is an e at the end of the word, the first vowel is generally long and the final e is silent (cape, rope, kite).
Robinson Crusoe
was really written for adults.
Letter name
the addition of more than 1 or 2 consonants with at least one vowel, used by young writers to represent the spelling of words.
helping children to sound out words by separating the words into syllables.
1. the function or work of a teacher; teaching2. the art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods.
Inferential Comprehension
draw conclusions from the text; interpretive level of thinking
Conventions of print
knowledge of the semantic and visual structure of text. Children learn about print and come to realize that print differs from speech, although it carries a message just like speech. Eventually, children learn that print, not pictures, carries the story.
an explicit understanding of how learning works and an awareness of yourself as a learner.
Event that took place before the current time of the story.
the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words
A program in the Microsoft Office suite which allows users to create presentations, and handouts. By creating PowerPoint "slides," users can add color, images, sounds, and movies to their text presentations.
stands for English Language Learner.
K stands for What I KNOW,W stands for What I WANT to know,L stands for What I LEARNED
Semantic organizer
Semantic organizers (also called semantic maps or semantic webs) are graphic organizers that look somewhat like a spider web. In a semantic organizer, lines connect a central concept to a variety of related ideas and events.
Frequent experiences with print
the more exposure children have to print, the more they understand the concepts about print. A classroom with many different words displayed on the walls helps children add words to their vocabulary.
the cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening
students survey the chapter, read and think about the title, headings, subheadings, captions under any pictures, vocabulary in bold print, side entries on each page and the summary.
Central idea of a literary work.
special education
Programs designed to serve children with mental and physical disabilities.
Word walls
a teacher must create a word wall rather than just "have" a word wall.Using a word wall of high-frequency words aids in reading and writing. It is common for a teacher to add 5 new words per week.
Statements of what students should know and be able to demonstrate.
Relationship to print
students first learn to recognize known words and letters in familiar books and contexts.
Reciprocal teaching
kids take turns learning from each other. This helps students make predictions, formulate questions, summarize information, and clarify points of confusion when reading.
Sequence of event that involves the characters of the story.
standard spelling in correct form
the content of instruction.
Main Idea
Overall or core meaning if a passage of writing.
Use of prior knowledge
through a series of guided questions, the instructor helps students activate their prior knowledge of a specific topic to help them comprehend the content of a story or article on the same topic.
-a list of books, journal articles, etc. on a particular topic.
The act of writing a piece
Island of the Blue Dolphins
Contemporary Fiction based on true story of a woman marooned on an Island for 18 years.
a way of measuring the progress of a student.
writing looks like English, but the words are a mix of phonemic and conventional spellings.
Early phonemic
children begin to use letters, usually capital consonant letters, to represent words.
affective aspects of reading
referring to students attitudes, interests, and values.
Making connections
Knowledge about a reading topic helps to improve comprehension. Proficient readers use background knowledge to enhance their understanding.
a student in this stage can decode any word, but might not be able to spell it.
closed constructed response
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There is only one right answer.
statement that provides a description of student knowledge expected at specific grades, ages, or developmental levels.
Social interaction - support by adults and peers
From the emergent literacy perspective, reading and writing develop concurrently and interrelatedly in young children and are fostered by experience with oral and written language. The more social interaction children have with adults and peers in terms of using written language or enjoying written language (story-book reading together, grocery lists, stop signs, etc), the easier it is for these children to develop into strong readers.
Tuck Everlasting
Modern Fantasy
stands for Attention Deficit Disorder. It is a medical term used to describe students with difficulties of attention.
Guided reading
an essential part of an early literacy program. Teachers observe students as they problem solve. Students learn to problem solve with new texts. Students experience success in reading for meaning.
Transferring information into long-term memory by processing it at deeper levels.
have students retell what they just read to themselves or a partner. Retelling should reflect the main idea, the correct sequence of events, the characters, setting, interpretation, and response.
Maintaining fluency
Practicing fluent oral reading aids in understanding the close relationship between speech and print.
cultural diversity
recognized that students come from different backgrounds (ethnic, geographic, religious, and economic).
writing prompt
A writing prompt gives definition and direction to the assigned topic. It can be as simple as a general idea, or complex enough to define the position of the thesis as well as the supporting paragraph.
The Wizard of Oz
was written in this century.
Shared reading
Books and stories selected for sharing should be those that have been proven to be loved by children, they should have literary merit and engaging content. Shared book experiences result in higher end-of-year achievement scores and phonic analysis test scores.
Aesop's Fox
Summer of my German Soldier
Bette Greene's first and best-known novel, chronicles one summer in the life of a twelve-year-old Jewish girl in the rural South.
Marking and coding
it is very helpful when reading books to highlight or underline important characteristics of characters, character names, and important quotes that one might use to support a thesis about the book.
Literary Luminary
a role for literature groups. This individual chooses 4 pieces of text to discuss with the group.
Print awareness
The knowledge that printed words carry meaning, and that reading and writing are ways to obtain ideas and information. A young child's sensitivity to print is one of the first steps toward reading.
Way the words are put together to create the story.
performance task
-a real-world, highly robust problematic situation that requires students to use specified knowledge, skills, and processes in various content domains.
Words or phrases that appeal to the senses and often create a picture in the reader's mind.
Literal Comprehension
take facts from text to get main ideas; factual level of thinking
constructed response
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There are closed and open-ended constructed response questions.
The Caldecott Award
picture book award
learning style
a mode of learning; an individual's preferred or best manner(s) in which to think, process information, and demonstrate learning.
Recognizing whole words
sight words are words that children have seen so often that they know them instantly. Often, sight words are words that cannot be sounded out phonetically.
Letters in sequence
helping children to recognize consonant blended sounds such as, wh, str, tr, sp, sh, ch, etc...
Prior Knowledge or schema
Schema refers to a reader's background experience, knowledge, interests, attitudes, perspectives, and present context or situation in reading.
inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from information on the Internet.
Informational books
are they level appropriate?
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
Place and time period of the story.
Whole Language approach
learned in a social and emotional context. Whole language promotes the development of reading and other communication skills in a social, communicative network.
the act of attributing human characteristics to abstract ideas etc.
reading for information
Adjusting reading according to purpose and context
Selecting text that will support the child's present knowledge and skills.
A module is a series of theme-related questions that progress in difficulty and open-endedness; beginning with multiple choice questions, advancing to opened-ended constructed response questions, and ending with a performance event.
are they level appropriate?
helps students become aware of their own reading comprehension abilities and needs, and to learn specific strategies that can be used to monitor and adjust reading behaviors to fit their own comprehension needs.
The process of language acquisition
consists of the child inferring the underlying rules of the language that he or she is exposed to, and testing those inferences by constructing his or her own utterances.
great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity.
the process of hearing.
Most children's literature through the 1700's
conveyed a religious or moral theme.
homogeneous grouping
organizing students with similar ability levels.
special education students are included in the general education classroom setting.
stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a medial term used to describe students with hyperactivity, attention difficulties, and impulsiveness.
Random letter
children use letters to represent words, but not based on phonics. They could use the letter Q to mean the "dog," or an entire sentence, or paragraph.
Freely exploring topics, choosing a topic, and gathering and organizing details before you write.
authentic assessment
a type of evaluation that requires a student to perform a task.
able to read effortlessly.
The Individual Education Plan developed for each child eligible for special education, based on the child's unique needs, with parent participation, containing a statement of the child's present level of performance, educational needs, goals and measurable objectives. Is reviewed at least annually.
begins at birth because it is a continuous, developmental process.
visual learner
learns by sight, or seeing something being done.
Conventional writing
resembles adult writing in form and structure.
Direct instruction
explanation of words and letters helps children understand that letters have sounds and words have meaning.
print motivation is a child's interest in, and enjoyment of, books.
Pandora's Box
Greek Mythology
Selecting fiction
When selecting fiction, a good balance of realistic stories, modern fantasies, historical fiction, and mysteries is important so that all areas of interest are covered.
Clustering is a nonlinear activity that generates ideas, images and feelings around a stimulus word. As students cluster, their thoughts tumble out, enlarging their word bank for writing and often enabling them to see patterns in their ideas.
Discussion Director
a role for literature groups. This individual leads the discussion as well as asks 5 thick questions.
has to do with meaning cues. Semantic cues are the answer to the question "what makes sense?";clues are provided by the knowledge the readers has through the meanings of other words in the text.
supplementary materials/activities
materials and/or activities used to extend or strengthen the topic being covered.
The Frogs Wore Red Suspenders
Children's Poetry
a plan of action.
role sheet
these are the sheets that are completed for the literature groups. The roles include Discussion Director, Literary Luminary, Connector, Illustrator, and Vocabulary Enricher.
to create your final copy
Purposes of print
knowledge that words convey a message separate from pictures or oral language.
literature group
a reading experience that allows students to share their information and ideas related to a novel they are reading.
multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner proposes that all humans are endowed with seven forms of intelligence: mathematical/logical, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, spatial, and kinesthetic. Schools usually emphasize the linguistic and mathematical/logical intelligences.
The Lost Flower Children
Contemporary fiction with some fantasy
open-ended constructed response
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There is more than one right answer.
An expression in one language that cannot be matched or directly translated word for word into another language.
Scribble writing
children use a pencil or crayon to explore the vast empty space on a blank sheet of paper.
students should use the preceding information to write anticipatory questions about what they are about to read.
Affective aspects of reading
refer to student's attitudes, interests, and values.
Wings of Merlin
Modern Fantasy
an acronym for survey, question, read, recite, review. This method provides students with a logical progression to study, and multiple encounters with the new material.
Shared writing
students are given the opportunity to share in the writing process. Teacher and students co-construct the message.
concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste
My Brother Sam is Dead
tells the story of a boy, Timothy (called Tim), who lives in Redding, Connecticut during the Revolutionary War.
The goal of teaching reading is to increase the level of silent reading comprehension. In order for a student to focus attention on the meaning of sentences and paragraphs, he/she must be a fluent reader.
anticipatory set
this is done before the lesson to activate prior knowledge.

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