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8th Grade Science Vocabulary (Nichols)

Science Vocab. (Nichols)


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Any change in the enviroment that affects the activity of an organism
The top of a transverse wave
Asexual Reproduction
A form of reproduction in which a single organism produces offspring that are genetically identical to it
Adrenal Glands
The glands that produce and release the hormone adrenalin
A silicate material that has cleavage; it breaks along its smooth, flat surfaces
An organ that produces bile which breaks down fats
Triple-Beam Balance
A tool used to measure mass
A genetic variation that helps an organism survive and reproduce
Newton's Second Law of Motion
A scientific law that states: the acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the force applied
Metric Ruler
A tool used to measure length
In chemistry, a row of elements in the periodic table
Crystalline Structure
The arrangement of crystals in a mineral
A physical property of matter describing the amount of matter in a given volume
Fossil Cast
A type of trace fossil formed when a cavity left by a shell, bone, or other animal part is filled with sediment that becomes rock
A word used to describe an organism made of a single cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A network of membranes that act as a passageway for moving materials within a cells
Ability to Rust
A chemical property that describes how well a substance will react with oxygen to form a new substance
Law of Action and Reaction
Another name of Newton's third law of motion, which states that forces exist in pairs
Optical Telescope
A telescope that uses visible light to magnify images of objects
Sea Cave
A hollow opening produced by wave erosion at the base of a seaside cliss
The maximum distance a wave vibrates from its resting position
Large Intestine
A digestive organ where water is removed from unabsorbed materials and returned to the body
Global Warming
An increase in average global temperatures that some scientists believe is caused in part by burning fossil fuels
A nerve cell
Incomplete Dominance
A condition in which no allele is completely dominant, meaning dominance is shared
A phase in the death of a star like tha sun
Maglev (Magnetic Levitation)
Electromagnets on train cars and rails that repel each other, so the train rides above the rail
The layer of the atmosphere that lies just above the troposphere and contains the ozone layer
The movement of light through matter
A structure inside a cell that holds foor, water, and wastes waiting to be removed from a cell
To examine data and decide what they show
Molten rock from within the Earth that forms igneous rock when it cools
Plowing along the existing dips and rises of the land to help prevent soil erosion
Radiation Zone
An area roughly 300,000 km thick around the core of the sun
A liquid waste that leaves the nephrons, or filtering units of each kidney
The process in which plants use carbon dioxide, water, and the energy from sunlight to make food
Describes a wave with a frequency that is higher than humans can hear
Passive Solar Heating
Heating provided by south-facing windows or by building materials like insulated windows, brick, and plastic columns of water that can store the sun's energy and release heat slowly
Protective Coloration
Coloring that camouflages an animal from predators
An organelle that produces the energy a cell needs to carry out its activities
The tube in the urinary system through which urine passes out of a kidney
Nervous System
A body system that collects and interprets stimuli and sends information to the body so it can respond to those stimuli
Unbalanced Forces
The forces acting on an object when the net force is zero
A tool used to measure relative humidity
Parathyroid Glands
Glands belonging to the endocrine system that regulate calcium levels in the blood
A boundary where two air masses with different characteristics meet
A force that attracts objects to each other and can affect motion
A property of moving objects that describes how difficult it is to stop a moving object or change its direction
Divergent Boundary
A boundary along which two tectonic plates move apart
The smallest particle that an element can be divided into and still be the same element
Air Bag
A safety device designed to cushion a person if an automobile stops suddenly, as in an accident
A tiny structure within a cell that helps the cell carry out its life activities
El Nino
A climate event caused by periodic water temperature changes in the south Pacific Ocean, resulting in extreme weather around the world, from flooding to droughts
A region in a sound wave next to each compression where particles of the medium are spread out
A tool used to measure time
To damage natural resources, such as through the release of toxic, or poisonous, substances
An adjective describing something, such as a cell in a multicellular organism, that performs a unique function
Mid-Ocean Ridge
An underwater mountain chain that forms when magma rises through the gaps that form between to plates that are diverging or pulling apart
The distance in degrees north or south of the equator
A compound that produces hydroxide ions when it dissolves in water
Red Blood Cell
A cell that carries oxygen to other cells
The outer layer of the sun's atmosphere that extends millions of kilometers into space
Water vapor that condenses and falls to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, and hail
In chemistry, a column of elements in the periodic table, also called a group
A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart
The body's control center
Thymus Gland
The gland in the endrocrine system that regulates the development of the immune system and produces some of the body's white blood cells
The bouncing off of light from an object or surface
A close relationship between two or more species in terms of how they interact in their enviroment
A living part, or factor, of an enviroment
The distance light can travel in one Earth year
Space Shuttle
A reusable space craft that carries equipment and astronauts into space
Reflecting Telescope
A telescope that uses visible light and mirrors to magnify, or enlarge, space objects
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Smooth Muscle
Involuntary muscles that move food and blood through the body
Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock
A kind of metamorphic rock in which the minerals are not layered
The process in a star in which hydrogen is converted into helium and energy is released
A type of sugar that plants use for food
Food Web
A network of food chains that shows many of the ways in which food energy moves through a community
An instrument used to view distant objects
The carbon in the organic matter left behind when intense heat and pressure squeeze moisture from plant remains
A change of state from a liquid to a gas that occurs when energy is added to a substance
B Cell
A cell in the immune system that produces proteins called antibodies to fight disease-causing agents
Compact Bone
Tissue that surrounds most bones and has no open spaces
A consumer that eats dead animals
Sea Arch
An opening created by wave erosion through a headland, resulting in a bridge of rock over the water
A method of soil conservation in which step-like terraces are cut into the side of steep slopes to reduce soil erosion
A hard tissue that helps support and protect the body of some organisms, including humans
Wind Vane
A tool used to measure wind direction
Spring Scale
A tool used to measure weight
Buoyant Force
The upward force that a gas or liquid exerts
During the spring and the fall, the day when neither of Earth's poles is tilted more toward the sun
A compound that produces hydrogen ions when it dissolves in water
Organic Sedimentary Rock
Rock that forms from the remains of once-living things
Skeletal System
A system of hards bones and soft, flexible cartilage that support your body, give it shape, make blood cells, store fats and minerals, and protect internal organs
A measure of time
Convection Zone
A roughly 200,000 km-thick area around the core and radiation zone of the sun
Rolling Friction
Friction that is created by only having wheels in contact with a surface
Data Table
A chart that organizes data
Pulmonary Circulation
The round-trip movement of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
A group of tissues that work together to do a certain job
Bituminous Coal
A moderately hard coal formed when heat and/or pressue cause a soft coal called lignite to change
Polar Zone
Area located between 66.5 degrees north and south of the equator to the poles
The presence for two different alleles for one trait.
Occluded Front
A boundary where warm air is forced up between two cold air masses
Nitrogen Fixation
The process of changing nitrogen from gases to solid nitrogen compounds
A renewable fuel that comes from organic matter, such as wood, plants, garbage, and animal wastes
Organs that produce male sex cells called sperm
A substance that is applied to touching surfaces to reduce friction between them
A tool used to measure air pressure
A term used to describe an objects speed and direction
Doube Bar Graph
A graph that uses bars of different heights or lengths to compare to sets of data
Terrestrial Planets
Small rocky planets
Geologic Time Scale
A time scale that divides earth's history into seperate periods of time
The cell organelle that contains chromosomes, which are made of DNA, the hereditary material that directs the cell's activities
The largest division of geologic time, covering billions of years
Bar Graph
A kind of graph that uses bars of different heights or lengths to compare sets of data
A segment of DNA molecule
The bottom of a transverse wave
Periodic Table
The chart that organizes all the elements according to their properties
An organisms role in its habitat
Degrees Celsius
A measure of temperature
Wetland Destruction
When wetlands are drained and filled so the land can be used for buildings and other development
A dissection tool used for cutting
Silicate Mineral
A mineral composed mostly of silicon and oxygen combined with other elements
The layer of the atmosphere that lies above the stratosphere
Specific Heat Capacity
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of substane to 1 degree C
A female sex cell produced in an ovary
Independent Variable
The variable that is being tested in an experiment and the only variable that changes
The splitting apart of the nuclei of heavy elements to produce lighter elements
Permanent Magnet
A magnet made from materials such as iron and nickel
A physical property of matter that describes its ability to be pulled into a wire
Systemic Circulation
The movement of blood from the heart to the body and back
Spring Equinox
March 20th or 21st in the Northern Hemisphere, when both hemispheres recieve 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness
Spiral Galaxy
A galaxy with a central bulge and spiral arms
An element that has some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals
A physical state in which matter has no definite shape or volume because the particles are moving quickly enough to overcome any attraction forces between them
A high, steep-faced section of land that extends into sea, created by wave action
A reproductive structure produced by a plant
Atomic Mass
The average mass of all an atom's isotopes
The process of checks and balances in the body that starts or stops the release of a hormone in order to keep it at the appropriate level
The layer above the photosphere in the sun's atmosphere
Carbon Cycle
The movement of carbon between living things and the enviroment
Lymph Nodes
Structures in lymphatic system that store white blood cells and filter lymph to remove pathogens, or disease-causing agents
An animal with radial symmetry and a simple nervous system
Bacteria and fungi that break down waste materials from organisms and the remains of dead organisms
A group of specialized cells working together to do a job
The long body of a neuron
A type of cell didvision that produces sex cells with half the number of chromosomes foind in body cells
Moon Phases
The changes that seem to occur in the moon's appearance when viewed from Earth
A structure that holds two identical chromatids together during mitosis, or cell division
Chemical Weathering
The process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical make-up
Intrsusive Igneous Rock
An igneous rock, such as granite, that has coarse grains
Energy Pyramid
A diagram that shows how much energy is available to organisms in each part of a food web
A rocky space body smaller than an asteroid that enters Earth's atmosphere and/or strikes Earth's surface
A characteristic inherited from a parent or parents
A copy of a chromosome; it's made before cell division begins
A sticky substance produced by the nose
Most single-celled organisms, including bacteria, amoeba, and algae
Big Bang Theory
A scientific explanation for the beginning of the universe
Horizontal Axis
The side of a graph that runs horizontally, or from left to right
Behavioral Adaption
A behavior that helps an organism survive and reproduce
The distance between the low points (troughs) or high points (crests) of two waves that are side by side
Rock Fossil
The hard part of animals and plants, such as bone, shell, and wood, that are preserved when sediment becomes rock
The interaction between electricity and magnetism that causes a magnetic field to form around a wire through which electric current flows
Electromagnetic Spectrum
An arrangement of electromagnetic waves according to increasing frequency and energy and decreasing wavelength
A tiny blood vessel that connects arteries and veins
A group of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity
Dark spots on the surface of the sun that appear dark because their temperatures are relatively lower than temperatures in surrounding areas
An observation that includes numbers and units
The change that occurs over time in the inherited traits of a population
A material, such as wood, that does not transfew thermal energy quickly
The taking in of light by an object
A tool used to collect moving or still images
A form of a gene
Magnetic Field
The region around a magnet where its magnetic forces can act
Continental Air Mass
A dry type of air, which forms over dry land
How high or low a sound is
A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species recieves neither harm nor benefit
Right Ventricle
The chamber in the human heart that pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries
Solar Eclipse
When the moon moves between the sun and Earth, casting its shadow on Earth
Neutron Star
One of the possible final phases in the death of a supergiant
Sedimentary Rock
Rock that forms when sediments are deposited, cemented, buried, and turned into a new rock layer
In chemistry, a column of elements in periodic table, also called a family
Food Change
A simple model that shows how energy is transferred from one organism to another in a community
The layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth's surface where weather takes place
The populations of different species that interact with each other in an ecosystem
The movement of energy through matter or space
A substance that forms when the atoms of two or more elements combine chemically
Completely gone
A subdivision of the era in the geologic time scale
Index Fossil
A fossil of a organism that lived over a wide area for a short time in geologic history.
Subduction Zone
A boundary where one plate- usually made of dense, oceanic crust- collides and sinks under less dense crust
A change of state in which a substance changes from a gas to a liquid when energy is removed
The process in which energy is added to a substance, causing a change of state from a liquid to a gas
The expression of alleles, or how an organism appears
Bone Marrow
A soft tissue in the center of a bone
A type of habitat destruction in which forested land is cleared without replacing the cut trees
The organ where bile is stored and released to aid in digestion
Learned Behavior
A behavior, such as looking for food, that parents teach to offspring
How loud or soft a sound is
Genetic information that is passed from parents to offspring during reproduction
A measure of liquid volume
The study of an organisms structures
Tube that connects the pharynx to the lower respiratory system, or bronchi and lungs
Space Probe
A spacecraft that can travel into the solar system to obtain data about the atmosphere, surface, and make-up of different planets
A technology that uses bounced sound waves to create images of organs inside an organism's body
Refers to the number of different species living in an area
A solenoid wrapped around an iron core
Station Model
A display of weather data collected at stations in individual towns and cities
A scientific activity designed to test a hypothesis
An element that is solid at room temperature, a good electrcical conductor, ductile, and has a shiny luster
A molecule that contains the coded instructions for the operation of a cell
Sensory Neuron
A neuron that recieves information and sends it to the central nervous system to be processed
Natural Resource
Something living things use that is provided by Earth
Spongy Bone
Tissue found in the ends of many bones that provides most of the bone's strength
The rate at which charged particles pass a certain point in a circuit
Balanced Forces
Forces that produce a net force equal to zero
Electromagnetic Radiation
Waves of electromagnetic energy, including visible light
A solid that forms when a substance falls out of a solution in liquid or gas as the result of a chemical reaction
Newton's First Law of Motion
A scientific law that states: an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force
Line Graph
A graph that shows changes in value in a set of data with respect to time
Solar Flare
A powerful eruption of gas that occurs near sunspots
Scientific Investigation
A set of procedures scientists use when conducting a scientific inquiry
The transfer of energy between objects that are touching
Ability to React with Acids
A chemical property that describes how readily a substance will react with an acid to form a new substance
A symbiotic relationship existing between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed
Information collected during a scientific investigation
Selective Cutting
The removal of only certain trees during logging while leaving other trees to grow
Peripheral Nervous System
A network of nerves that connects all parts of the body to the central nervous system
Elliptical Galaxy
A round or oval-shaped galaxy
A silicate mineral with fracture and a hardness of 7
A rate of motion that describes the distance an object travels over time
An atom that has a different number of neutrons than other atoms of the same element
Polar Air Mass
A cold type of air mass that forms over Earth's polar regions
The transfer of thermal energy between objects with different temperatures
The height above sea level, or altitude
A male sex cell produced in testis (plural: testes)
Organ System
Several organs working together to do a certain job
A muscular sac at the end of the large intestine where wastes are stored until they leave the body
A push or pull exerted by one object on another object
The highest layer of the atmosphere with very thin air and extremely high temperatures
Material, such as glass, capable of transmitting light easily and without scattering
Tropical Zone
Areas located between 23.5 degrees north and 23.5 degrees south of the equator
Winter Solstice
December 21st or 22nd in the Northern Hemisphere, making the day with the least amount of sunlight
Steps taken to prevent accidents or harm while conducting a scientific investigation
Left Ventricle
The chamber in the human heart that pumps oxygen-rich blood to the body
The bending of light waves as they pass at an angle from one medium to another
An imaginary line that runs vertiaclly through the center of Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole
Chemical Reaction
When one or more substances' interact to form one or more new substances
Compound Microscope
A tool used to view objects that are too small to be seen with a hand lens
Mechanical Digestion
The first stage of digestion in which teeth break down food into smaller pieces
Being made of more than one cell
Fault-Block Mountain
A type of mountain formed when tectonic forces cause rock layers to break
A change in state from liquid to solid
The color of a mineral in powdered form
Solar Energy
Energy from the sun that is converted into electricity
Small planetary objects that form through the action of gravity during the birth of a solar system
A blood cell part that helps blood clot
Motor Neuron
A neuron that carries information from the central nervous system to the muscles, which respond to the message by moving
A measure of length
The largest part of the brain
The collapse of a supergiant in a violent explosion
A physical state in which matter has a definite shape and volume, and the attraction forces between particles is strong
Punnett Square
A diagram that shows the alleles for a trait that each parent contributes to an offspring and the ways the alleles can combine
The amount of force exerted on a given area
The part of the brain that helps a person maintain balance
A path along which electric current flows
The gel-like material in a cell that contains the organelles and dissolved materials
Sea-Floor Spreading
The process in which two undersea tectonic plates move apart
The variables which are kept the same in a scientific experiment
Cold Front
A boundary where dense cold air meets and forces up less dense warm air
A consumer that eats both plants and animals
Basic materials used for energy by cells and the body, that come from food broken down by the digestive system
Safety Goggles
Covering worn in the lab to protect a person's eyes from harmful materials
A protein produced by an immune-system B cell in response to an antigen
A scientist who studies the Earth's atmosphere
The part of the brain that controls involuntary actions such as heart rate and breathing
Flexible connective tissue found at the end of bones
A consumer that eats only plants
Electric Circuit
A path along which electric current flows
Sound Recorder
A tool used to record sounds, such as the songs of a bird
Nonrenewable Resource
A natural resource that either cannot be replaced or which may take millions of years to be replaced by natural processes
Endocrine Glands
Structures that produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream
The process by which earth materials are carried from one place to another
Urinary System
The body system that removes wastes from blood
A tool used to measure length or distance
The way an organism reacts to stimulus
The process in which water vapor from the bodies of plants and animals enters the atmosphere
The number and kinds of atoms in a molecule or compound
Cardiovascular System
The body system through which nutrients are delivered to cells and wastes are carried away
Earth's outermost layer
Geothermal Energy
Energy generated by heat from inside Earth
Rift Valley
A place on land where continental tectonic plates are diverging, or pulling apart
A measure of the pull of gravity on an object
A substance in a chemical reaction that reacts with another substance to produce a product, or new substance
A subdivision of an eon in the geologic time scale
A meteroid that enters Earth's atmosphere but does not strike the Earth
Describes a mineral that breaks along a smooth, flat surface
A mountain formed when continental plates converge
The process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces
A solid composed of minerals and other natural materials
Trace Fossil
A fossil created from an animal track, trail, or waste that is preserved in sediment that turns to rock
Gas Giants
Very large planets made mostly of dense gases
Trace Gases
Gases such as hydrogen and helium that exist in very small quantities in the atmoshpere
A substance that results from a chemical reaction
A message that travels through neurons, or nerve cells, in the form of electrical energy
Artificial Satellite
Human-made objects that orbit around other objects in space
The rate at which velocity changes
A substance, such as metal, that conducts or transfers energy quickly
A high-energy light beam with a single wave length
A machine that converts kinetic energy into electrical energy
An electronic device used to make and display measurements
A pure substance that cannot be seperated into simpler substances
Cenozoic Era
A division of geologic time from 66 million years ago to present
A measure of pressue
White Dwarf
The phase that follows the giant phase in the death of main-sequence star like the sun
Clastic Sedementary Rock
Rock made up of pieces of rocks and minerals that are held together by a cementing material
An animal with a backbone
Small Intestine
A digestive organ where nutrients are absorbed by the blood
Limiting Factor
Any resource that limits the size of a population
The particular combination of all of an organism's alleles
Active Solar Heating
Solar energy collected and changed into electrical energy by solar cells
Kinetic Energy
The energy an object has due to its motion
Tectonic Plates
Plates that move from Earth's crust
A dome-shaped sheet of muscle that stretches across the chest below the lungs
The number of waves produced in a given amount of time
An explanation based on experience rather than on direct observation
In chemistry, an expression that describes a chemical reaction
Salivary Glands
Structures in the mouth important to the process of digestion
Main Sequence
A category in the H-R diagram in which a star spends most of its life
A compound made of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds
Radiometric Dating
The use of radioactive isotopes to estimate the age of a fossil
A protein produced by a pathogen, or disease-causing agent
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
When object in space blocks light from reaching a second object
Small pieces of rock, soil, and other materials
Relative Dating
The ordering of an object or geological event relative to another object or event, based on its position in the geologic order
H-R Diagram
A diagram showing the relationship between the brightness and the temperature of starts
Potential Energy
The energy an object has based on its position
Cardiac Muscle
Unvoluntary muscle tissue found only in the heart
A meteoroid that strikes Earth's surface
Hydroelectric Energy
The energy of running water converted into electricity
A chamber in the human heart that recieves blood pumped from an atrium and pumps blood out of the heart
Electric Current
The rate of flow of electricity
A chemical reaction in which thermal energy is absorbed
A scientist who studies space
A physical property of matter that describes a material that does not transmit light
Static Electricity
The buildup of electric charges on an object
Igneous Rock
A rock that forms when magma cools and hardens
Endocrine System
The body system that uses hormones to control slow, long-term body functions, such as growth and blood sugar levels
Parallel Circuit
A circuit in which all load are located on seperate branches
A tools used to measure temperature
Magna that flows onto Earth's surface
A naturally occuring solid made of elements or compounds
Extrusive Igneous Rock
An igneous rock, such as basalt, made of fine grains
A fertilized egg with a complete number of chromosomes
A line on a weather map that shows areas of equal pressure
Hydroxide Ion
A negatively charged ion made of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen aton bonded together
Rain Gauge
A tool used to collect and measure precipitation
Hot Spot
An area located directly above plumes of magma rising in Earth's crust
A measure of force
A space object made of ice, rock particles, and dust
When heat energy moves in currents through a liquid or a gas
pH Scale
A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
A hormone that raises heart and breathing rates
Large molecules that make up most of the body mass of living things other than plants (which are made mostly of cellulose)
Net Force
The overall force acting on an object
Air Mass
A large, moving body of air with similar temperature moisture characteristics throughout
The part of the enviroment in which an organism lives
Right Atrium
The chamber in the human heart that recieves oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it to the right ventricle
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Covalent Bond
A type of bond betwenn atoms in which electrons are shared
Hand Lens
A tool used to look at details of small objects such as insects, leaves, or rocks
The process of changing a habitat such that it can no longer support life
A method of conservation that involves using less energy and fewer materials
Red Marrow
Skeletal tissue found in spongy bone that produces red blood cells
Scientific Inquiry
The process of asking meaningful questions and seeking answers to those questions
A waste product filtered out of the blood by the kidneys
Warm Front
A boundary where warm air meets and slides over cold air
A descrption of the size, shape, and arrangement of grains or crystals in a rock
An area's long-term weather patterns
The type of muscle movement that is under a person's control, occuring in skeletal muscle
The amount of space someting takes up
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of each of an elements atoms
Thermal Conductivity
The rate at which a material can conduct thermal energy
Bunsen Burner
A tool that uses an open flame to heat substances in a lab
A type of cell reproduction process that results in two cells that each have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
Fall Equinox
September 22nd or 23rd in the Northern Hemisphere, when both hemispeheres recieve 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness
Killer T Cell
A specialized type of immune system cell that kills pathogens
Mesozoic Era
The time between 245 million and 66 million years ago
Cellular Respiration
The process in which food energy is changed into energy that cells can use
No-Till Farming
A method of protecting soil by leaving stalks from harvested crops in the field, where they serve as soil cover to reduce soil erosion
An animal with bilateral symmetry, a gut with two openings, a complex nervous system, and a circulatory system
The hormone produced and released by the pancreas that controls the level of sugar in the blood
An organism that hunts and eats other organisms
A muscular pouch at the end of the esophagus
An oval shape
The ramains or traces of an organism that lived long ago that have been preserved in rock
A possible answer to a scientific question that is based on observations and data
Stress that occurs when rock layers in Earth's crust are pulled apart
Wind Turbine
A set of rotating blades that change wind energy to mechanical energy
A physical property that describes the way a mineral reflects light
Coils of wire that carry an electric current
Habitat Destruction
Damage done to a habitat that results in the loss of resources that organisms need to survive, like food, water, and shelter
The division of cytoplasm into two complete cells at the conclusion of mitosis
Graduated Cylinder
A tool used to measure liquid volume
A cell's or organism's internal stability
A force tat opposes motion when two surfaces touch each other
When two or more organisms depend on the same limited resources for survival
An organelle in plant cells that contains chlorophyll
Water Cycle
A model that describes how water moves through the enviroment
Respiratory System
A system that includes the lungs, organs that take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide, and the trachea, esophagus, nose, and mouth as passages for gases to be transported into and out of the body
Physical property of a substance, describing its ability to be dissolved in another substance
An organism that must eat or otherwise ingest other organisms or organic matter for food
Energy Resources
Renewable and nonrenewable forms or energy
Pivot Joint
A kind of joint found in the neck and forearms
Melting Point
The temperature at which a pure substance melts
A small, rocky space body
Any material that attracts iron, nickel, or cobalt
Tropical Air Mass
A warm type of air mass that forms over Earth's tropical zone
An element that is a poor conductor
The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place
A permanent change in an organism's DNA
The movement of energy through space
Gliding Joint
A joint found in the wrist
A particle with no electric charge found in the nucleus of an atom
A wave that bounces back
Temperate Zone
Areas located between 23.5 degrees and 66.5 degrees north and south of the equator
Paleozoic Era
The time between 544 and 245 million years ago
A measure of mass
Fossil Mold
A type of trace fossil that forms when a shell, bone, or other animal part leaves its impression in soft sediment and the impression remains when the sediment becomes rock
Relative Humidity
A measure of the actual amount of water vapor in air compared to the total possible amount the air is capable of holding at a given temperature
Vestigial Structure
A body part that does not seem to have a useful function
Plasma Membrane
A thin structure on the outer part of a cell that regulates materials that enter and exit the cell
Depressions on a moon's or planet's surface caused by collisions with space objects, such as asteroids
Double Line Graph
A line graph that compares two sets of data
T Cell
A cell in the immune system that recognizes different pathogens, or disease-causing agents
A method of resource conservation that involves using materials to make new ones, such as making new aluminum products from used soda cans
Finger-shaped structures that line the inside walls of the small intestine
A stable atomic particle with a negative electric charge, usually found within a cloud around an atoms nucleus
A tool used to measure mass
A molecule that supplies energy to cells
Tough connective tissue that joins skeletal muscle to bone
A measurement of time
Maritime Air Mass
A wet type of air mass that forms over water
Air Temperature
A measure of the movement of molecules that make up air
The presence of two matching alleles for one trait
Newton's Third Law of Motion
A scientific law that states: When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts and equal and opposite force on the first
Pituitary Gland
The master gland in the endocrine system
Gene Pool
All the genes in a population
A tool that measures direction
The amount of water vapor in the air
A method of resource conservation that involves using products more that once
Ohm's Law
An equation that describes the relationship among current, voltage, and resistance in a circuit
A dissection tool used to grasp structures
Climax Community
A more diverse, complex, and stable community of plant, animal, and decomposer species that forms over time
A set of repeated measurements
A line that connects areas of equal temperature on a weather map
Taking materials like minerals and coal from the earth
The movement of a planit on its axis
The opposition to the flow of an electric charge
Organs in the respiratory system through which oxygen is taken into and carbon doixide is released from the body
A phase in the death of an extremely massive star
An instrument used to show sound wave amplitude
Absolute Magnitude
A degree of brightness
Antibiotic Resistance
The ability of organisms such as bacteria to resist, or withstand, the killing power of an antibiotic, or disease-killing substance
Atomic Mass Unit
A unit of measure of atomic mass
Part of a circuit that allows current to flow when it is closed and prevents a current's flow when it is open
The ability to do work
Sliding Friction
Friction created by pushing
Pioneer Species
Thr first organisms to grow in a new ecosystem
Left Atrium
The chamber in the human heart that recieves oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle
Water that sinks into Earth's surface and is stored underground
Transform Boundary
A boundary along which two tectonic plates are sliding past each other
The movement of air caused by differences in air pressue
Anthracite Coal
A hard coal that contains the highest amount of carbon
Tiny sacs inside the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs
Refracting Telescope
A telescope that uses visible light and lenses to magnify, or enlarge, space objects
An educated guess about what will happen in an experiment, based on data from previous trials
A recessive allele is present but not expressed
Tissue that holds bones together
The layer of Earth between the crust and the core
Instinctive Behavior
A behavior, such as migration, that does not have to be learned
Heat-Resistant Gloves
Gloves worn in the lab when handling hot objects
The amount of matter an object contains
A reproductive cell formed by a seedless plant that can form a new organism
Water Vapor
The gas that forms when water evaporates
Structural Adaption
A body structure that helps an organism survive and reproduce
Greenhouse Effect
Atmospheric warming that results when gases in Earth's atmosphere trap energy radiated from Earth
A degestive organ that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood
Communities of living organisms and the abiotic factors that effect those communities
A physical state in which matter has definite volume but no definite shape because the particles are moving quickly enough to overcome some attraction forces between them
Fluid collected by the lymphatic system from capillaries throughout the day
Chemical Digestion
A process that begins in the mouth, where enzymes from salivary glands are released to help break down food
A mountain that forms when magma rises from the mantle and spills or erupts onto Earth's surface
Irregular Galaxy
A galaxy that has a shaped that cannot be categorized as either spiral or elliptical
A measure of distance
The gradual change from one kind of community to another in an area
Folded Mountain
A mountain formed when continental plates converge
Vertical Axis
The vertical, or up and down, side of a graph
Metamorphic Rock
Rock formed by intense heat and pressure
Carrying Capacity
The largest population an ecosystem can support over time
One complete orbit around the sun
Skeletal Muscle
Muscle attached to bones
Black Hole
One of the two possible final phases in the death of a supergiant
An organ in a plant or animal that produces the female sex cells called eggs
The muscular tube through which food is carried to the stomach
A particle in the nucleus of an atom that has a positive electrical charge
A measure of liquid volume, or capacity
Fossil Fuel
A nonrenewable natural resource that comes from the remains of dead plants and animals and take millions of years to form.
A symbiotic relationship between two organisms in which both organisms benefit
Immune System
The body system that produces special cells to fight off pathogens, or disease-causing agents, in the body
Foliated Metamorphic Rock
A kind of metamorphic rock in which heat and pressure arrange the minerals in the rock into layers
Hot Plate
An electric tool used to heat substances in a lab
Physical Property
A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of matter
Homologous Chromosomes
Pairs of like chromosomes that contain similar hereditary information.
Renewable Resource
A natural resource that can be replaced by natural processes in a fairly short amount of time
A physical property of matter that describes its ability to be pounded into thin sheets
Thyroid Gland
The gland in the endocrine system that produces a hormone that controls how quickly the body uses the energy in food
Information, or date, collected through senses
White Blood Cell
A cell that fights pathogens, or disease-causing agents, that invade the body
Cell Cycle
A cell's life cycle
A substance that flows easily
Rock Cycle
A model that shows how rocks continually change from one type to another
The muscular organism in the circulatory system that pumps blood through the body
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
Rock that forms when dissolved minerals fall out of a solution, usually in water
A soft, shiny form of carbon
Millimeters of Mercury
A scale of measuring air pressure
The force that pushes a moving object up into the air due to an imbalance in air pressures above and below the object
Transverse Wave
A mechanical wave in which particles of a medium vibrate up and down
Ball-and-Socket Joint
A type of joint found in the shoulder and hip
The movement of pollen from the stamens of a flower to the pistil of the same flower, or another flower
Visible Light
The light you can see
Sexual Reproduction
A form of reproduction in which the offspring inherit half of the genetic material from each parent
Longitudinal Wave
A mechanical wave in which particles of a medium vibrate back and forth along the direction the wave travels
A label that describes what a graph shows
Yellow Marrow
Skeletal tissue found in bones
A chemical reaction in which thermal energy is released
Chemical Bond
A bond that holds a compound together
Part of the respiratory system
The structure in the urinary system through which urine lieaves the body
Electromagnetic Waves
Disturbances of electromagnetic radiation that carry energy through matter or space
A point on a line graph where to lines meet
A living thing
Dark, flat regions on the moon's surface that are made of igneous rock
A physical property that describes how easily a mineral can be scratched
An invertebrate that has bilateral symmetry, a gut with two openings (one for eating and one for getting rid of wastes), a complex nervous system, and a circulatory system
The organ that filters pathogens from the blood
A step-by-step plan of an experiment
A physical property of matter that describes a substance's ability to scatter visible light as it passes through the substance
The Earth system that includes all of the gases that surround Earth
1) When rocks in Earth's crust are subjected to stress that squeezes rock layers together 2) Areas of longituinal wave in which the medium's particles are crowded together
A technological device that uses sound waves to locate objects underwater
Waves of energy released by movements of rock beneath Earth's surface
Feedback Mechanism
A series of automatic responses that helps an organism return to a stable internal state, or homeostatis, if conditions change
Nuclear Energy
Energy released by the splitting of atomic nuclei, or fission, that is used to generate electrical energy
Mechanical Weathering
The process of physically breaking down rock
Ionic Bond
A chemical bond formed by the attraction of ions with opposite charges
Temporary Magnet
A magnet made from materials that are easy to magnetize
Solar System
The sun and the nine planets and smaller objects that orbit the sun
A physical property of matter
A place where two or more bones connect
Spinal Cord
The cord of nervous tissue that follows the spine and connects the brain to the rest of the nervous system and body
Describes a mineral that breaks along a jagged, uneven surface
Digestive System
A system of organs including the stomach that work together to break down large particles of food into nutrients that the body needs for growth and repair
A green pigment in plants that captures energy from sunlight
Ability to Burn
A chemical property that describes how easily a substance can burn
Ozone Layer
A layer contained in the stratosphere of Earth's atmosphere, which protects life on Earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation
The body's largest organ
A relationship that becomes apperant, or recognizable, from viewing data in a data table
An explanation based on data
A chamber in the human heart where blood enters the heart and is pumped into a ventricle
A white blood cell that engulfs and kills pathogens that invade the body
Weather Map
A visual display of weather data
A physical property of matter that describes its ability to transfer thermal or electrical energy from one area to another
A form of erosion in which rocks grind against each other and are broken down into smaller pieces
Thermal Energy
The total kinetic energy of the molecules in an object
Precambrian Era
The time up to 544 million years ago
Chemical Property
The ability of a substance to change into a new substance with different properties
A unit of measure of air pressure
A machine that changes electrical energy into kinetic energy, the energy of motion
Freezing Point
The temperature at which a substance freezes
The layer around the convection zone, the radiation zone, and the core of the sun
Hinge Joint
A joint like those found in the knee and elbow
A threadlike structure in a cell's nucleus that contains the cell's DNA
A dominant allele prevents another allele from being expressed
Lymphatic System
A system of vessels that collects and filters blood fluids and returns them to the cardiovascular systems
Soft coal formed when heat and pressure compress sediment and organic matter
Reservoir Rock
Porous, or permeable rock, in which oil and gas collect in pockets
The cutting of trees
The change of state from a solid to a liquid
The innermost part of a planet or star
Summer Solstice
June 21st or 22nd in the Northern Hemisphere, marking the day with the greatest amount of sunlight for the year
Anything that can change an experiment
An organism that is hunted
Any device on a circuit that uses electrical energy to do work
Radioactive Isotopes
Atoms that are unstable, meaning they decay, or break down, to form stable atoms of a different element
An object that orbits around another object in space
A response to stimuli that helps an organism survive
Law of Universal Gravitation
The scientific law that states that the force of gravity depends on the masses of two objects and the distance between them
A protective covering worn in the lab to protect clothing from harmful spills
Seat Belt
A safety device designed to keep a person in their seat if an automobile stops suddenly, as in an accident
Disposable Plastic Gloves
Gloves worn in lab when working with organisms or chemicals
Nitrogen Cycle
A model that describes how nitrogen is moved between the biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem
Air Pressure
A measure of the force of air pushing in all directions
Urinary Bladder
A sac-like structure in the urinary system in which urine is stored
A measure of length or distance
A tool used to measure wind speed
Individual organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time
The place where digestion begins
Type of muscle action that you cannot control, occuring in muscles in the digestive tract and blood vessels
Lunar Eclipse
When earth moves between the sun and the moon, casting its shadow on the moon
A disease-causing agent such as a virus or harmful bacterium
Tiny structures in a kidney that filter wastes from the blood
The liquid portion of the blood that carries dissolved sugar and other nutrients to the body's cells
Series Circuit
A circuit in which all parts are connected ina single loop
Hydrogen Ion
A hydrogen atom that has lost an electron, giving it a positive charge
Introduced Species
Species that are moved from their native enviroment to a new enviroment, either accidentally or intentionally
An area along which rocks move suddenly, causing earthquakes
Lumps of lymphatic tissue that defend the body against pathogens, or disease-causing agents, that enter through the mouth and nose
The process of breathing, during which organisms break down sugars and give off carbon dioxide as a waste product
A cloud of dust and gas in space from which stars are born
Tissue made of cells and cell parts floating in plasma, or liquid
A range of numbers on a graph, usually on the vertical axis
Muscular System
A system of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles
The average amout of kinetic energy the particles in a substance or object have
Space Station
A spacecraft with living and working quarters
An organism that makes its own food
A term used to describe how big of a "push" electrons get from the source that produces them in a circuit
Helper T Cell
A type of immune system cell that recognizes antigens and activates other immune system cells that destroy pathogens and infected cells
Solar Cell
A power cell that changes solar energy into electricity
Acid Precipitation
Polluted rain or snow that can damage forests, ponds, and buildings
Ring of Fire
A belt that runs along the edge of a group of tectonic plates, where the Earth's most active volcanoes are located
A measure of length
An inherited trait that makes on individual different from other individuals of its species
A chemical messenger
Stationary Front
A boundary where two different air masses meet and then stop moving
A consumer that eats mostly or only animals
Social Behavior
A behavior that involves communication with other individuals
A nonliving part, or factor, of an enviroment
Mineral Fossil
A fossil formed when minerals replace the tissues of an organism, gradually turning the tissue to stone

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