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Smith Bio Vocab for Final

Vocab for final for Smith Bio

Terms

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Root hair
Tiny projection from the outer surface, or epidermis, of a root
Conjugation
Form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information
Hardy-Weinburg
A principle that allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause the frequencies to change
Herbivore
Organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
Spirillum
Spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes
Fungi
Kingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
Chemosynthesis
Organisms use chemical energy to produce carbs--performed by bacteria
Mycorrhizae
Symbiotic association of plant roots and fungi
Endoderm
Innermost germ layer of most animals; develops into the linings of the digestive tract and much of the respiratory system
Pistil/carpel
Intermost part of a flower that produces the female gametophytes
Spore
Haploid reproductive cell
Stomata
Pore-like openings in the underside of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse in and out of the leaf
Posterior
Rear or back side of a structure
Ectoderm
Outermost germ layer of most animals; gives rise to outer layer of the skin, sense organs, and nerves
Primary growth
Type of plant growth that occurs at the tips of roots and shoots
Fertilization
The union of male and female gametic nuclei
Invertebrate
Animal that does not have a backbone or vertebral column
Paramecium
A type of genus that has cilia, which are organized into evenly spaced rows and bundles, that beat in a regular, efficient pattern
Species
Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Angiosperm
Flowering plant; bears its seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed
Competition
Struggle among organisms for food, space, and other vital requirements
Gram-positive
Bacterial cells with a cell wall containing mainly peptidoglycan, absorbs only the violet dye, so they appear purple under the microscope
Parasite
Organism that lives within or on another organism and harms that organism by feeding on it
Homozygotes
Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait
Gymnosperm
Seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones
Diploid
Refers to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Filter feeders
Aquatic animals that strain tiny floating plants and animals from the water around them
Autotrophic
Organisms that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
Ovary
In plants, a flower structure that contains one or more ovules from which female gametophytes are produced
Pollen
Contains male sex cells
Ectotherm
Animal that relies on interactions with the environment to help it control body temperature
Photosynthesis
Plants use energy of sunlight to convert water and CO2 into O2 and high-energy carbs (sugars and starches)
Pseudopod
Projection of cytoplasm, or false foot, used by some protists for feeding or movement
Guard cells
specialized cell in the epidermis of plants that controls the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure
Bacillus
Rod-shaped prokaryotes
Radial symmetry
Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body; characteristic of sea anemones and sea stars
Pollination
Transfer of pollen from the male gametophyte to the female gametophyte
Geographic isolation
Two populations separated by geographic barriers
Transpiration
Loss of water from a plant through its leaves
Flagella
Whip like structure on some cells that is used for movement
Speciation
Formation of new species
Heterotrophic
Organisms that obtain energy from the food it consumes; also called consumer
Characteristics of animal
Multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do not have cell walls
Natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully
Detritus
Particles of organic material that provide food for organisms at the base of an estuary's food web
Eukaryote
Organisms which contain nuclei
Algae
chlorophyll-containing, usually aquatic, eukaryotic organisms
Evolution
Change in a certain organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Cilia
Short hairlike projection similar to a flagellum; produces movement in many cells
Xylem
Vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
Dicot
Angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons
Mesoderm
Middle germ layer of most animals; gives rise to muscles and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems
Peptidoglycan
polymer found in the cell walls of prokaryotes that consists of polysaccharide and peptide chains
Heterozygotes
Organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait
Migration
Periodic movement and return of animals from one place to another
Chitin
Complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
Apical dominance
Phenomenon in which the closer a bud is to the stem's tip, the more its growth is inhibited
Alternation of generations
Process in which many algae switch back and forth between haploid and diploid stages of their life cycles
Genetic Drift
Random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations
Darwin
Came up with the theory of natural selection/survival of the fittest-number of offspring that can survive
Pathogen
Any organism that causes disease
Dorsal
Situated on the back
Ventral
Pertaining to the belly or lower or inner surface of a structure
Lichen
Symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
Prokaryote
Smallest, most common organisms; single-celled; lacks a nucleus
Virus
Particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells
Meristem
Regions of tissue that can produce cells that later develop into specialized tissues
Fruit
Thick wall of tissue surrounding an angiosperm seed
Cuticle
In plants, a thick, waxy layer on exposed outer surfaces of cells that protects them against water loss and injury
Embryo
Early developmental stage of a sporophyte plant
Haploid
Refers to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
Coevolution
Process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
Hyphae
Tiny filament that makes up a multicellular fungus or a water mold
Vertebrate
Animal that has a vertebral column, or backbone
Blastula
Hollow ball of cells formed when a zygote undergoes a series of divisions
Endotherm
Animal that generates its own body heat and controls its body temperature from within
Exoskeleton
External skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates
Nitrogen fixation
Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
Taxonomy
Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name
Punctuated equilibrium
Pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change
Miller & Urey
Did experiments that suggested how mixtures of the organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds present on Earth
Secondary growth
Pattern of plant growth in which stems increase in width
Population
Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
Anther
Flower structure in which haploid male gametophytes are produced
Malaria
A serious disease transmitted by mosquitoes caused by an animal like protist
Radioactive isotope
isotopes with unstable nuclei--break down at a constant rate over time--help determine ages of fossils by analyzing isotopes inside
Biological hierarchy
Biological tree that includes broad to specific traits: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Euglena
A type of genus; found in ponds and lakes; Euglenophytes (plantlike protists that have two flagella but no cell wall) are a phylum in this genus
Bryophyte
Nonvascular plant; examples: mosses and their relatives
Coccus
Spherical prokaryotes
Convergent evolution
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
Photoperiodism
Response of plants to periods of light and darkness
Phylum
Group of closely related classes
Monocot
Angiosperm whose seeds have one cotyledon
Mycelium
Many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi
Antibiotics
compounds that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
Stigma
Sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
Amoeba
Flexible, active cells with thick pseudopods that extend out of the central mass of the cell
Anterior
Front side of a structure
Phloem
Vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
Prions
Self-replicating protein--such as mad cow disease
Sporangia
Structure in ferns and some fungi that contains spores
Fossils
preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism
Translocation
a chromosomal rearrangement in which a segment of genetic material from one chromosome becomes heritably linked to another chromosome
Bilateral symmetry
Body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves; characteristic of worms, arthropods, and chordates
Genus
Group of closely related species, first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature
Gram-negative
Bacteria cells that have a second, outer, layer of lipid and carbohydrate molecules--the extra layer absorbs only the red stain so they appear pink

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