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Zoology Chapter 18


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Skull surrounds brain, olfactory organs, eyes, inner ear; unique embryonic tissue, neutral crest, sensory nerve cells * skeletal & connective tissue structures
Skull = cartilaginous bars, jawless, no paired appendages, mouth w/ 4 pair tentacles, olfactory sacs open to mouth, pharyngeal slits, ventrolateral slime glands

Subphylum Hyperotreti

Class Myxini
Vertebrae surround nerve cord & act as axial support
Subphylum Vertebrata
Large, sucking mouth, cartilage reinforced, gill arches,
Sucking mouth w/ teeth & rasping tongue, 7 pharyngeal slit pairs, blind olfactory sacs, nests for eggs, ammocoete larva

Class Cephalaspidomorphi
Most closely related to amphibians/ origin of terrestrial vertebrates
Osteolepiform sarcopterygians (lungfishes)

Hinged jaws, paired appendages, vetebral column replaced notochord, 3 semicircular canals
Tail fin w/ upper love, cartilage, no operculum, no swim bladder, no lungs

Sharks, rays, ratfishes
Class Chondrichthyes
Placoid scales (project posteriorly to reduce friction)

Sharks, skates, rays
Subclass Elasmobranchii
Ram ventilation, excrete urea, tissues hypersomatic to water, release sodium chloride in blood out of cloaca, claspers for reproduction

Sharks, skates, rays
Operculum covers pharygneal slits, no scales, crushing plates, lateral-line in open groove

Subclass Holocephali
Most bony skeleton, operculum cover single gill, pneumatic sacs as lungs/ swim bladders
bony fishes
Class Osteichtyhes
Lobe-finned fishes, pneumatic sacs act as lungs

Has lungfishes, coelacanths, osteolepiforms
Subclass Sarcopterygii
Ray-finned fishes, blind olfactory sacs
Subclass Actinopterygii
Excretory structures in kidney

Filter nitrogenous wastes in blood, ions, water, or glomerulus
Short tubule system, large glomeruli, only drink water when feeding, very dilute urine
Freshwater fish
Drink water, small glomeruli, long tubule system, concentrated urine
Marine/ saltwater fish
Outgrowth of digestive tract along dorsal body wall of bony fish
Swim bladder

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