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Classic Findings First Aid 2006


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Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Actinic keratosis
Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Addison's disease
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, cafe-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls
Albright's syndrome
Guillain-Barre (increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
Albuminocytologic dissociation
Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Alport's syndrome
Anti-basement membrane antibodies
Goodpasture's syndrome
Anticentromere antibodies
Scleroderma (CREST)
Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (ANA antibodies)
SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Anti-epithelial cell antibodies
Pemphigus vulgaris
Antigliadin antibodies
Celiac disease
Antihistone antibodies
Drug-induced SLE
Anti-IgG antibodies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA)
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)
Antineutrophil antibodies
Antiplatelet antibodies
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Marfan's syndrome
Argyll Robertson pupil
Arnold-Chiari malformation
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Aschoff bodies
Rheumatic fever
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies
Wernicke's encephalopathy
Auer rods
Acute myelogenous leukemia (especially the promyelocytic type)
Sickle cell anemia
Babinski's sign
UMN lesion
Baker's cyst in popliteal fossa
Rheumatoid arthritis
"Bamboo spine" on x-ray
Ankylosing spondylitis
Bartter's syndrome
Basophilic stippling of RBCs
Lead poisoning
Defective dystrophin, less severe than Duchenne's
Becker's muscular dystrophy
LMN CN VII palsy
Bell's palsy
Bence Jones proteins
Multiple myeloma (kappa or lamda Ig light chains in urine), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
IgA nephropathy
Berger's disease
Defect in platelet adhesion
Bernard-Soulier disease (GbIb defect?)
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Birbeck granules on EM
Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Bloody tap on LP
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
"Blue bloater"
Chronic bronchitis
Blue-domed cysts
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Blue sclera
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Boot-shaped heart on x-ray
Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
Bouchard's nodes
Osteoarthritis (PIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Boutonniere deformity
Rheumatoid arthritis
Branching rods in oral infection
Actinomyces israelli
"Brown tumor" of bone
Hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts:
1. Hyperparathyroidism
2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's disease)
Brushfield's spots
Down syndrome
Bruton's disease
X-linked agammaglobulinemia
Budd-Chiari syndrome
Posthepatic venous thrombosis
Buerger's disease
Small/medium-artery vasculitis
8:14 translocation; associated with EBV
Burkitt's lymphoma
Burton's lines
Lead poisoning
Wegener's granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)
Cafe-au-lait spots on skin
Caisson disease
Gas emboli
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Call-Exner bodies
Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chagas' disease
Cerebriform nuclei
Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Chagas' disease
Trypanosome infection (T. cruzi), American tryano...
Chancre, not painful
Primary syphilis
Haemophilus ducreyi (painful)
Charcot's triad
Multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech), cholangitis (jaundice, RUQ pain, fever)
Charcot-Leyden crystals
Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Chediak-Higashi disease
Phagocyte deficiency
Cherry-red spot on macula
Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick disease, central retinal artery occlusion
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
Central apnea in CHF and increased intracranial pressure
"Chocolate cysts"
Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Chronic atrophic gastritis
Predisposition to gastric carcinoma
Chvostek's sign
Hypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
DES exposure in utero
Clue cells
Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman's triangle on x-ray
Cold agglutinins
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis
Cold intolerance
Condylomata lata
Secondary syphilis
Continuous machinery murmur
Patent ductus arteriosus
Cori's disease
Debranching enzyme deficiency
Cotton-wool spots
Chronic hypertension
Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis + fever (and Koplik's spots in the prodrome)
Councilman bodies
Toxic or viral hepatitis
Cowdry type A bodies
Crescents in Bowman's capsule
Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Curling's ulcer
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Currant jelly sputum
Curschmann's spirals
Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Cushing's ulcer
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder-rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)
Diabetes insipidus + exophthalmos + lesions of skull
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
Dog or cate bite
Pasteurella multocida
Donovan bodies
Granuloma inguinale
Dressler's syndrome
Post-MI fibrinous pericarditis
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Deleted dystrophin gene (x-linked recessive)
Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearanc of bone)
Edward's syndrome
Trisomy 18 associated with rocker-bottom feet, low-set ears, heart disease
Eisenmenger's complex
Late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected L to R shunt becomes R to L shunt)
Elastic skin
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Erb-Duchenne palsy
Superior trunk brachial plexus injury ("waiter's tip")
Erythema chronicum migrans
Lyme disease
Fanconi's syndrome
Proximal tubular reabsorption defect
"Fat, female, forty, and fertile"
Acute cholecystitis
Fatty liver
Ferruginous bodies
Gardner's syndrome
Colon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Gaucher's disease
Glucocerebrosidase deficiency
Ghon complex
Primary TB
Gilbert's syndrome
Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia
Defect in platelet aggregation (GpIIbIIIa defect?)
Goodpasture's syndrome
Autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins
Gower's maneuver
Duchenne's (use of patient's arms to help legs pick self off the floor)
Guillan-Barre syndrome
Idiopathic polyneuritis
"Hair-on-end" appearance on x-ray
Beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
Chronic progressive histiocytosis
Thalassemia major
Sickle cell anemia
hCG elevated
Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
Heberden's nodes
Osteoarthritis (DIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Heinz bodies
G6PD deficiency
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs
Heterophil antibodies
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
High-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
Wet beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)
Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis
HLA-DR3 or -DR4
Diabetes mellitis type 1 (caused by autoimmune destruction of Beta cells)
Homer Wright rosettes
Honeycomb lung on x-ray
Interstitial fibrosis
Horner's syndrome
Ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis
Howell-Jolly bodies
Splenectomy (or nonfunctional spleen)
Huntington's disease
Caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)
Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility
Kluver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)
Hyperpigmentation of skin
Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)
Hypersegmented neutrophils
Macrocytic anemia
Hypertension + hypokalemia
Conn's syndrome
Hypochromic microcytosis
Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning
Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levels
Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
Adenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer's patches)
Janeway lesions
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction
Syphilis-overaggressive treatment of an asymptomatic patient that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis
Job's syndrome
Neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
Kaposi's sarcoma
AIDS in MSM (men who have sex with men)
Kartagener's syndrome
Dynein defect
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Wilson's disease
Keratin pearls
Squamous cell carcinoma
Kimmelstiel Wilson nodules
Diabetic nephropathy
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
Bilateral amygdala lesions
Koplik spots
Krukenberg tumor
Gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases
Kussmaul hyperpnea
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility
Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin deficit)
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
HGPRT deficiency
Lewy bodies
Parkinson's disease
Libman-Sacks disease
Endocarditis associated with SLE
Lines of Zahn
Arterial thrombus
Lisch nodules
Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease)
Low serum ceruloplasmin
Wilson's disease
Lucid interval
Epidural hematoma
"Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Lytic bone lesions on x-ray
Multiple myeloma
Mallory bodies
Alchoholic liver disease
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
Esophagogastric lacerations
McArdle's disease
Muscle phosphorylase deficiency
McBurney's sign
MLF syndrome (INO)
Multiple sclerosis
Monoclonal antibody spike
Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA), MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance), Waldenstrom's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Wegener's and Goodpasture's (hemoptysis and glomerular disease)
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
Negri bodies
Nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss
Alport's syndrome
Neurofibrillary tangles
Alzheimer's disease
Niemann-Pick disease
Sphingomyelinase deficiency
No lactation postpartum
Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary dysfunction)
Nutmeg liver
Occupational exposure to asbestos
Malignant mesothelioma
"Orphan Annie" nuclei
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Osler's nodes
Owl's eyes
Painless jaundice
Pancreatic cancer (head)
Palpable purpura on legs and buttocks
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
Pancoast's tumor
Bronchogenic apical tumor associated with Horner's syndrome
Rheumatoid arthritis
Parkinson's disease
Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion
Periosteal elevation on x-ray
Pyogenic osteomyelitis
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Benign polyposis
Peyronie's disease
Penile fibrosis
Philadelphia chromosome (bcr-abl)
CML (may sometimes be associated with AML)
Pick bodies
Pick's disease
Pick's disease
Progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's
"Pink puffer"
Emphysema [centroacinar (smoking), panacinar (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency)]
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Esophageal webs with iron deficiency anemia
Gout (MP joint of hallux)
Podocyte fusion
Minimal change disease
Polyneuropathy, cardiac pathology, and edema
Dry beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)
Polyneuropathy preceded by GI or respiratory infection
Guillan-Barre syndrome
Pompe's disease
Lysosomal glucosidase deficiency associated with cardiomegaly
Port-wine stain
Positive anterior "drawer sign"
ACL injury
Pott's disease
Vertebral tuberculosis
Pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement
Gliblastoma multiforme
Ewing's sarcoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
Horner's syndrome (Pancoast's tumor)
Rash on palms and soles
Secondary syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Raynoud's syndrome
Recurrent vasospasm in extremeties
RBC casts in urine
Acute glomerulonephritis
Recurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and S. aureus infections
Cystic fibrosis
Red urine in the morning
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg cells
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Reid index (increased)
Chronic bronchitis
Reinke crystals
Leydig cell tumor
Reiter's syndrome
Urethritis, conjuntivitis, arthritis
Renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemangiomas + adenomas
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Renal epithelial casts in urine
Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
Rib notching
Coarcation of aorta
Roth's spots on retina
Rotor's syndrome
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rouleaux formation (RBCs)
Multiple myeloma
Russell bodies
Multiple myeloma
Left-to-right shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitral regurgitation, LV failure (CHF)
Aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Schiller-Duval bodies
Yolk sac tumor
Senile plaques
Alzheimer's disease
Sezary syndrome
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Sheehan's syndrome
Postpartum pituitary necrosis
Shwartzman reaction
Neisseria meningitidis
Signet-ring cells
Gastric carcinoma
Simian crease
Down syndrome
Sipple's syndrome
MEN type IIa
Sjogren's syndrome
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Skip lesions
Slapped cheeks
Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) [Parvovirus B19 "Bingo"]
Smith antigen
"Smudge cell"
Soap bubble on x-ray
Giant cell tumor of bone
Spike and dome on EM
Membranous glomerulonephritis
Spitz nevus
Benign juvenile melanoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Starry-sky pattern
Burkitt's lymphoma
"Strawberry tongue"
Scarlet fever (also measles?)
Streaky ovaries
Turner's syndrome
String sign on x-ray
Crohn's disease
Subepithelial humps on EM
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Suboccipital lymphadenopathy
Sulfur granules
Actinomyces israelli
Swollen gums, bruising, poor wound healing, anemia
Scurvy (ascorbic acid, vitamin C deficiency)-vitamin C is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
Systolic ejection murmor (cresendo-decrescendo)
Aortic valve stenosis
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc mutation)
Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)

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