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TAMS, Dr. Ayre, Biology, Ch. 27

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What are the three basic shapes prokaryotes take on?
Bacillus (rod), coccus (sphere), spirillum (helical).
Colonies can develop into erect structures and release _______, which grow into new bacteria.
Spores.
How are prokaryotes different from eukaryotes?
1.Unicellularity, 2.Smaller Cells, 3.No Chromosomes, 4.Binary Fission (Not Mitosis), 5.No Internal Compartmentalization, 6.Simple, Proplike Flagella, 7.Diversity of Metabolism
What is the nucleoid?
The region of a prokaryote where the circular DNA complex is located.
What sort of metabolic diversity do prokaryotes possess?
They have several types of anaerobic and aerobic photosynthesis, and can be chemoautotrophic.
What are the two domains of prokaryotes? Describe them.
Archaebacteria (mostly extrememe environments) and Bacteria (older than Archae, most named species).
How do Archaebacteria and Bacteria differ?
1.Plasma Membrane Composition, 2.Cell Wall (Bact. have Peptidoglycan, Arch. don't), 3.Gene Translation Machinery (Arch. similar to eukaryotes, Bact. not), 4.Gene Architecture (Bact. have no introns).
What are bacterial cell walls made of?
Peptidoglycan (Archaebacteria have no peptidoglycan).
Describe the results of a Gram Stain.
Gram-positive- stains purple, thick peptidoglycan wall, antibiotic susceptible.
Gram-negative- stains red, thin peptidoglycan cell wall, antibiotic resistant.
What are flagella?
Slender, helical structures composed of flagellin that spin like propellers.
What are pili?
Hairlike structures, shorter than flagella, aid in substrate attachment and genetic transfer.
What are endospores?
Thick-walled structures that surround the prokaryote genome in times of stress to protect the cell.
Describe the prokaryotic cell interior.
It has internal membranes, a nucleoid region, ribosomes, and plasmids.
What are the four categories of prokaryotic metabolism?
Photoautotrophic (light only), Chemoautotrophic (inorganics only), Photoheterotrophic (light and organics), Chemoheterotrophic (inorganics and organics).
What are some human bacterial diseases?
Tuberculosis, Dental Caries (tooth decay), Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Chlamydia.
How are Prokaryotes useful in the environment?
They help in decomposition, nitrogen fixation, and have symbiotic relationships with other organisms.
How have humans used Prokaryotes?
We have used them as bioweapons, biofactories for several things (i.e. penicillin), remedies for pollution, and plan to use them as pesticides.

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