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AP Euro Chapter 2


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William the Conqueror
-Conquered England 1066
-Makes the noble Anglo-Saxons his vassals
-Takes a census of what people own and taxes them for it
Henry II- 1100's
-Attempts to secularize courts
-Replaces judges w/secular laymen who are "nomadic". This helps prevent bribing/property issues.
- These are the first circuit courts.
Thomas Beckett
Archbishop of Canterbury who opposed Henry II's secularization of the courts.
-Killed by Henry II.
-Henry II does public penance for the murder
-Henry II covers up by saying that Beckett was a "saint" and the pope forgives him.
Canterbury Tales
Written By Chaucer, significant because it's in Middle Enlgish, a mix of French, Latin and German.
King Richard the Lionheart
Son of Henry II
-Fought in crusades
- Kidnapped, cost England ransom money
King John
Son of Henry II
-taxed nobles to fight many wars
Magna Carta
Signed 1215 by King John
- "Great Charter"
- Reactionary Document to King John's taxation of the nobles
- says "No one is above the law"
- Therefore, the king isn't above the law and he can't make it, or tax the nobles.
*Nobles wanted to go back to time of feudalism
Henry V
King during 100 Years War
-Unites England as they push their way into France
Henry VI
-Disastrous reign during the War of the Roses
English Nationalism
Inspired by War of the Roses
Joan of Arc
Symbolic POW that inspires French Nationalism
Which King ended the War of the Roses?
King Henry VII
How did King Henry VII stifle the power of nobles in England?
He passed laws prohibiting nobles from having private armies (livery and maintenance).
King Henry VII also created a "royal council" to deal with troublemaking nobles. This court didn't have a jury--a symbol of the power of the king alone.
What was the royal name of French King Louis XI's family?
The Valois Line.
What is one way that Louis XI beefed up France's security after the 100 years war?
He created a royal army which he taxed on his own will.
What special agreement gave the Galician Church some administrative independence from Rome in 1438?
The Pragmatic Sanction of 1438.
What agreement rescinded the Pragmatic Sanction of 1438 in 1516?
The Concordat of Bologna
Who were the chief players in the Concordat of Bologna?
The chief players in the 1516 Concordat of Bologna were King Francis I (France) and Pope Leo X.
What did the Concordat of Bologna (1516) achieve?
Pope Leo X would still receive "annates" (money) from the French clergy but Francis I would get to choose his own National clergy.
What do the Concordat of Bologna, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1438, and the Protestant Reformation have to do with eachother?
Both the Pragmatic Sanction of 1438 and the Concordat of Bologna in 1516 achieved small steps in France's Catholic power/independence from Rome. This subsequently made French leaders satisfied with their country's religion and not as willing to accept the Protestant Reformation.
What were the two main kingdoms of Spain during the 1400's?
Aragon and Castile
What famous Spanish marriage occurred in 1469 and what was its significance?
Isabella of Castile marries Ferdinand of Aragon. This marriage did nothing to unite the two kingdoms politically--Spain was united under the Catholic Church rather than the Spanish State.
What was the Inquisition in Spain?
The Inquisition was a church court that had precedence over all of Spain.
What event sparked a resurgence of Spanish Catholic Nationalism?
The end of the reconquista, when Granada (S. Spain) is conquered and all Moors are out of Spain.
Why were Jews expelled from Spain, and in what year did this occur?
The Jews were expelled from Spain in 1493, following the end of the reconquista and a resurgence of Spanish Catholic feeling.
What was the time known in history, as the "Spanish Inquisition"?
The Spanish Inquisition was the time period after the explusion of Jews and Muslims. Many Jews/Muslims remained in Spain and converted. If these converted "others" were suspicious of being un-Catholic, they were brought before the Inquisition and tortured.
Who are the Moriscos and Marranos?
Marranos= Jews
Before the Protestant Reformation, the three "estates" of Germany could be classified as:
Princely States, Ecclesiastical States, and Imperial Free Cities.
Describe the Princely States of Germany pre-Reformation.
Small hereditary monarchies. Saxony is an example of a famous Princely State.
Who was in charge of the Ecclesiastical States of Pre-Reformation Germany?
Bishops or Abbots.
What "estate" constituted the majority of Germany?
Imperial Free Cities.
In terms of the HRE, how was Germany's "Three State-System" significant?
It checked the power of the HRE.
After 1356, how did the HRE become the HRE?
After 1356, the HRE was elected by different leaders from the Ecclesiastical and Princely States of Germany.
Around what year did the first Habsburg Emperor rule and where was he from?
Around 1450, he was the Archduke of Austria.
Who was the second HRE from the Habsburg family?
Maximilian I (1493-1519)
What was Maximilian I's main goal? Did he achieve it? Why or Why not?
Maximilian I's main goals were the centralization of the HRE. He didn't achieve it because states were beginning to want their own rights.
How did Maximilian I build up the Habsburg family fortune?
Through strategic marriages.
Around what year did Charles V become HRE?
Around 1520.
What major events are occurring in Central Europe around the time of Charles V's ascent of the HRE?
Turks are fighting Hungary.
What did Charles V brother Ferdinand do? How does he influence the Habsburg's reign over all of Europe?
Ferdinand was elected to be the leader of Hungary and Bohemia after their defeat by Turkey. Ferdinand is able to retain power in what little of Hungary is left to, Hungary. This spreads Habsburg influence throughout Central Europe.
What was Martin Luther's profession until age 40?
He was a monk.
What were some of Martin Luther's worst fears?
Martin Luther feared the omnipotence of God, his own "littleness", the devil, and the belief that he was damned. The sacraments, prayers, and masses weren't helping to alleviate these fears!
What inspired Martin Luther's main point about justification by faith?
The line in St. Paul that reads "The just shall live by faith".
According to Martin Luther, what should a man's faith be judged/not judged by?
A man's faith should not be judged by how well he follows Catholic rituals; only by his personal faith/relationship with God.
According to Martin Luther, what are good works?
Good works are the result of having a good relationship with God.
Where was Luther employed around 1517, and what was he doing?
Luther was a Professor at Wittenberg.
What was Friar Tetzel doing in Germany in 1517?
Friar Tetzel was traveling through Germany collecting indulgences to finance the building of St. Peter's in Rome.
What did Luther do in response to his outrage at Tetzel's ludicrous indulgences?
Luther posted the 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
What was the primary message of Luther's 95 theses?
The 95 theses claimed that priests aren't necessary. In something like a confession, it's a man's faith that frees his soul; not the priest.
Who was responsible for the first major Nationalist movement in Europe?
Why did Frederick the Wise oppose Tetzel?
Because Tetzel was causing German currency to leak into Rome and out of Saxony.
Who did Luther first approach to stop the onslaught of corrupt indulgences?
Leo X, who didn't do anything to stop indulgences.
What was Luther's ideal opinion regarding spiritual authority?
Everybody can interpret the bible their own way--therefore, not one person can claim supreme authority.
What was Luther's opinion regarding the authority of the clergy?
The clergy is on the same level as the laity.
What Catholic rituals did Lutheranism not include?
Mass, saints, pilgrimages, fasts...
What did Lutherans believe about purgatory?
There is no such thing.
What two sacraments did Lutherans preserve as holy?
Communion and baptism
Who did Luther first appeal to in his efforts against the papacy?
The German princes.
Around what year was the Diet of Worms?
What does Luther do with the first papal bull that Leo X sends him? What is the result of this action?
He burns it. Next comes Luther's excommunication and summoning to the Diet of Worms.
What happens to Luther after the Diet of Worms?
Luther is banned by Charles V, but escapes to Saxony under the protection of Frederick the Wise.
What does Luther do while hiding out in Germany?
He translates the bible into German.
When was the Peasant's Revolt and where was it?
1524 in Germany.
What provoked the Peasant's revolt?
Luther's ideas claiming that individuals can decide what is right/wrong.
What were the peasants revolting against?
Poverty, feudalism
What was Luther's reaction to the peasant revolt?
He put it down very violently with the help of German princes.
What happened in Munster in 1534?
Religious radicals, collectively called Anabaptist, gathered in Munster.
Who was the leader of the Anabaptists in Munster?
John of Leyden (Dutch)
What did the Munster Anabaptists believe?
The Munster Anabaptists believed in the reign of the Saints, not having property, and polygamy.
How did Luther redefine his faith in reaction to the Peasant's Revolt and Munster?
Luther re-defined Lutheranism in terms of good Christians always owing obedience to the state first, yet still having spiritual freedom with God.
Did the German states start determining their religion with or without the permission of Charles V?
Without his permission.
What was the most significant Ecclesiastical German State to convert to Lutheranism?> Who was its leader?
East Prussia, under the leadership of Albrecht of Brandenburg of the Teutonic Order.
What was the League of Schmalkald?
A group of Lutheran princes/cities against the HRE.
Who was the League of Schamalkalds most unsuspecting ally?
Francis I of France, in his quest to overpower the HRE.
Who was at war in 1546?
The Schmalkaldic League and France against the HRE.
When/what was the Peace of Augsburg
1555. Ended the war b/w Schmalkaldic League/France and HRE.
What was the main decree of the Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Every state within the HRE can choose b/w Catholic or Prot. Still, people had no right within their region to choose their religion.
What is Germany like after the Peace of Augsburg (1555)?
Anarchy of Prot/Cath states.
Why doesn't Lutheranism spread very far throughout Europe?
It's too associated with states.
What is the difference b/w Luther's works and Calvin's works?
Luther's works are much more nationalistic.
What was John Calvin's main book, published 1536?
Institutes of Christian Religion.
What was Institutes of the Christian Religion about?
Institutes of the Christian Religion was Calvin's book. It stressed the universalism of religion, was written in Latin..also stressed basic theological themes.
What was Calvin's philosophy regarding predestination?
Human beings can't be saved by their own actions, only by God (relates to Augustine).
What was Calvin's philosophy on government?
Religion controls the government- theocracy. The elect govern.
Who were presbyteries?
Calvinists, elected ministers/laymen who governed the church.
Where was Calvin's theocracy located?
Geneva, Switzerland.
What was different about Calvinist church services?
Nothing to make you feel any kind of emotion. More intellectual.
Who was Michael Servetus?
Spanish Refugee, sought asylum in Geneva but denied the trinity and was burned.
What was the name of Calvinist French?
Who spread Calvinism in Scotland and what was it called?
John Knox, Presbyterianism.
What was Henry VIII's book called and what title did it earn him in 1520?
Henry VIII wrote Defense of the Seven Sacraments, earning him the title "Defender of the Faith"
Who does Henry VIII ask to divorce Catherine?
Pope Clement VII
Why won't the pope divorce Henry VIII?
Pope Clement VII is worried about offending HRE Charles V, Catherine's nephew.
What does Henry VIII do once he realizes that Pope Clement VII won't grant him a divorce?
He appoints an Archbishop of Canterbury to divorce him and dissolves the connection with the papacy
What act was passed in 1534 and what was its significance?
The Act of Supremacy declaring Henry VIII head of the Church of England.
Who refuses to pledge allegiance to King Henry VIII and is killed?
Sir Thomas More
What does Henry VIII do immediately after proclaiming the Act of Supremacy?
Absolves church property and strengthens the British aristocracy.
What were the 6 Articles of 1539?
Henry VIII, all people must believe in transubstantiation, celibacy of clergy, confession.
When did Henry VIII die?
When does Edward VI die?
Who was Mary Tudor's husband?
Phillip of Spain.
When does Elizabeth become queen?
What were the 39 Articles (1563)?
Defined the Anglican Church.
How were Francis I's allies wishy-washy?
Francis I encouraged German Protestants to go against Charles V, while at the same time supported the Pope in his efforts to stop reform councils.
What year did the Council of Trent begin?
Who was the pope at the Council of Trent?
Pope Paul III
When was the Sack of Rome?
Who was St. Vincent De Paul?
Poor Catholic who helped alleviate carnage in Paris
Who was Teresa of Avila?
A Catholic Mysticist writer
What kind of order were the Jesuits?
Non-monastic order
What was St. Ignatius of Loyola's book?
Spiritual Exercises
How were the Jesuits organized?
According to military rank.
Three causes of the Reformation?
Corruption of papacy, Huss, increased literacy, poor Germany b/c of italy.

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