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Chapter 2 - Maps, Scale, Space, and Place


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absolute distance
the distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer
absolute location
the exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
azimuthal projection
a map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
breaking point
the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
a type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
choropleth map
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
cognitive map
an image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships between locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places
the actual or potential relationship between two places usually referring to economic interactions
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
contagious diffusion
the spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
coordinate system
a standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface
distance decay effect
the decrease in the interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases
dot maps
thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
expansion diffusion
the spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange
friction of distance
a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
Fuller projection
a type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges directions such that the four cardinal directions,north, south, east, and west, no longer have any meaning
the actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator than it is along the meridians, from north-south circumference
gravity model
a mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
anything in the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentially threatening. Hazards are usually avoided in spatial behavior
hierarchical diffusion
a type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common
international date line
the line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
A relatively small ratio between map units and gorund units. Large scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps
the angular distance north and south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude, or parallels
law of retail gravitation
law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
location charts
on a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction
the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians
map projection
A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape.
Mercator projection
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
a line of longitude that runs north-south; all lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles
an east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator
preference map
a map that displays individual preferences for certain places
prime meridian
an imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory is Greenwich, England, which marks zero degree lineof longitude
proportional symbols map
a thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol-such as a circle or triangle- indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographical region
reference map
a map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating
relative distance
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places
relative location
the position of a place relative to places around it
relocation diffusion
the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration
A map's smallest discernable unit. If, for example, an object has to be one kilometer long in order to show up on a map, then that map's resolution is one kilometer
Robinson projection
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape. distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
the ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface

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