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Social and Behavioral Midterm


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What is BMI?
It is calculated by:
weight in kg/(height in meters)^2 or [weight in pounds/height in inches/height in inches]*703
You are obese if your BMI is...
greater than 30
You are overweight if your BMI is...
Being overweight is an increased risk of...(name 4)
HPB, CHD, cancer, diabetes, gall bladder disease, osteo arthritis, sleep apnea, respiratory disease, and musculo-skeletal disease
Why is cardiac failure associated with being overweight?
fat is harder to perfuse creating an increased demand on the heart
A person with a BMI of 24, but not 25, is free of increased risk. T or F
False; compared to someone with a BMI of 21, a person with a BMI of 24 has 2 to 4x the risk of HBP, CHD, and diabetes
What cancers are reliably associated w/ obesity? independent of physical activity?
postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer
What cancers are reliably associated w/ obesity? dependent on physical activity?
colon cancer
What cancers are associated with high-fat intake?
none, evidence is inconclusive. Though, high fruit and vegetable intake has a consistent relationship with lower risk of many malignancies
When examining mortality rates by weight what other factors must be considered?
cigarette smoking (thinner but die earlier) and cachectic disease
Can you be fat and not at increased risk for CHD?
perhaps, if also physically active
when did obesity epidemic begin?
in the US, 1980 and rising still
What has changed since late 1970s to cause obesity epidemic?
more people eating out(bigger portions and higher fat content) and more high fat ala carte items and snack foods in schools
What is current prevalence of overweight adults?
65%, age-adjusted adults 20+ crude rate 64%
What is the current prevalence of adult obesity?
What % of adults get regular vigorous activity?
The % that gets 20 minutes or longer 3 or more times a week is 11%
Exercise must be vigorous to be beneficial. T or F
false, especially for those who are inactive even small increases bring measurable improvements
How much does brisk walking reduce the risk of coronary disease?
Vigourous activity produces a larger reduction in bp than moderate activity. T or F
apparently false
Part A: physicaly activity increases risk of injury especially in aging so Part B: should be avoided. T or F
Part A true especially musculoskeletal injury; part B false: benefits include increased bone density, less fractures; increased strength and functioning, & relieves symptoms of arthritis
school based programs don't work in reducing cv risk factors. T or F
false they can if they encourage healthy eating and teach skills to adopt and maintain healthy eating
what causes the world wide increase in obesity?
increased fat comsumption & decreased physical activity
what must be done to maintain weight loss?
permanent adoption of good dietary habits & permanent decrease in sedentary activity and increase in physical activity. Changes in the physical and social environment can help people do these
to reduce hbp, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia the substantially overweight mustlose what % of body weight?
What gender and race groups are most overweight?
most overweight: black, non-hispanic females (78% age adjusted from 20-74 years), mexican males (74%), mexican females (72%), native americans and pacific islanders also high; most obese: black non-hispanic females (51%), mexican females (41%)
Who is most inactive?
women, hispanics, older, poorer
What are the daily guidlines for moderate physical activity?
DHHS: 30 minutes accumulated PA
IOM: 1 hours accumulated PA
name the levels of ecological analysis
individual or intrapersonal, network or interpersonal, organizational, community, social or public policy
According to McLeroy what are three usual targets of change at the intrapersonal level?
knowledge, attitudes, values, skills, behavior, self-concept
Name one type of strategy that may be used to effect change at the intrapersonal level.
information, micro-media, newsletters, posters, skill-building
what are three usual targets of change at the interpersonal level?
families, neighbors, work groups, peers, group norms, social networks, social support
name one type of strategy used to effect interpersonal change.
self-help manuals for families, interactive health exercises, group norm change, enhance social networks
what are three usual targets of change at the organizational level?
organizational culture, organizational norms, organizational structure, poliicies, management styles, communication networks
name one type of strategy used to effect organizational change.
organizational development, employee participation, change structure, incentive programs, linking agents, family friendly policy
what are three usual targets of change at the community level?
resources, neighborhood organizations, community competency, social services, organizational relationships
name one type of strategy used to effect community change.
community campaign, coalition development, support (outside assistance), community services/institutions
what are two usual targets of change at the policy level?
legislation and policy
name one type of strategy used to effect policy change
build political units, lobby, media campaigns/advocacy
Describe the cause of your favorite health problems given understanding of the ecological levels, targets of change, and strategies
obesity/lack of healthy lifestyle
What is the core theme of Stokols' social ecology?
Highlighting the dynamic relations between people and their surroundings.
Social ecological models emphasize
a: individual health determinants
b: political health determinants
c: contextual (environmental) health determinants
d: the effect of culture on health
e: the effect of biology on health
Though ecological models examine all of these, the emphasis is on contextual determinants (c), which also includes examination of politcal (b) and cultural (d) determinants
Cite one of the arguments that Stokols uses to support his assertion that ecological models do better than those that focus on psychological and social circumstances.
1. The ecological model is more focused on people's physical surroundings-especially the joint influence of multiple life domains and settings(home, neighborhood, school, workplace)Thus the effects of phsyical space is given more emphasis than in psy/soc models.
2. In addition, ecological models emphasize the temporal aspects of the physical environment, eg primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention are considered as may life-course analysis
3. ecological models try to describe the biological, psychological, sociocultural, and physical environmental factors that jointly affect well being
name two (of three) things that Stokols thinks should guide the selection of problem in behavioral research
1. choose high leverage variables, ie those the exert the most effects across multiple levels of analysis (behavioral, interpersonal, organizational, community, & policy)
2. target the most prevalent and severe health problems
3. target highly vulnerable sub-groups
Whereas McLeroy calls the ecological levels of analysis: individual, interindividual, organizational, community, and public policy, Stokols prefers what three terms?
microinterventions - clinical
mesointerventions - organizational and community
macrointerventions - municipal, state, and national policies
What does Stokols suggest is the reason for many of the failures to improve health through change of individual behavior?
the individual is often not the primary source of the problem, thus changing the individual will not fix the problem - which may be environmental
What practice does Stokols suggest the clinicians use to help them find the right leverage point with patients/clients?
conduct what he calls an "environmental audit" to determine the psychologically salient settings and stressors in a person's life, eg workplace, home life, neighborhood
What NCI interviewing technique does Stokols suggest to increase the skill of health care providers in assessing patient/client health problems?
Use the NCI's 4A system: Ask, Advise, Assist, & Arrange help; also, provide about health-risk appraisal and self-care
What remedy does Stokols suggest to improve practice at the mesointervention level?
collaberation, cooperation, and coordination
What does Stokols feel is generally the most potent intervention level?
macrointerventions of city, state, or national policy
One of the challenges of ecological planning is to create programs that are sustainable. What two things does Stokols suggest will aid in sustainability?
1. planning must be anchored in a "theory of intervention" that facilitates grass roots participation in the formation of policies by major stakeholder groups in the community
2. and that ensures that collaborative links among key organizations and interest groups will be established and maintained
Plato taught that the root of lack of self-control is...
According to Plato what would be the key to behavior change?
What would plato have you learn to guide behavior? Would it be to choose acts...
a. in which the least harm was done
b. that brought the best immediate good
c. that would benefit family
d. that bring the most long-term good
e. th
he might agree with any of the choices except B but the best answer is D
Aristotle taught that behavior is teleological. That is, you do "x" to
achieve some end
Wundt is the cofounder (with Titchner) of structuralism. What is that?
The view that we can understand how we think only by studying the content of the elements upon which thought is built.
What movement in psychology did William James found as counterpoint to structuralism?
What is functionalism?
The mind cannot be studied by its structures, which only exist to serve functions.
Freud is a hystericist turned personality theorist and he held that the _______ holds the key to understanding present behavior.
Freud taught that the past is marked by stages of ______ development that affect our present functioning.
Freud taught that there are three personality components. What are they?
The id, which houses our two basic instincts binding together (eros) and tearing apart (death);
the ego that tames instincts, seeks pleasure, avoids pain;
the superego that is a precipitant of our parents that the ego must please
How does Plato say you change behavior?
educate, teach about long-range good
How does Aristotle say you change behavior?
set good final ends (goals), reasoning
How does Wundt say you change behavior?
determine the structure of existing thought, change as needed - add new content associations
How does Tichner say you change behavior?
determine the function of thought, change as needed - add new functional awareness
How does Freud say you change behavior?
change effects of past through transference into present where it can be addressed. provide opportunities to act on drives, seek pleasure, avoid pain. redefine understanding of superego needs
Who are the early theorists?
Plato, Aristotle, Wundt, Tichner, & Freud
Name three of the four early learning theorists.
Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, & Skinner
Pavlov is the found of what type of learning psychology?
Any of the following synonyms: reflexive, classical, respondent, or S-type learning or conditioning
In Pavlov's example with the man, dog food, and dog...what is the food?
unconditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's example with the man, dog food, and dog...what is the dog's reaction to the food?
unconditioned response
In Pavlov's example with the man, dog food, and dog...what is the man holding the food?
neutral stimulus
In Pavlov's example with the man, dog food, and dog...what is the man without the food?
conditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's example with the man, dog food, and dog...what is the dog's reaction to the man?
conditioned response
Thorndike placed cats in a "puzzle box" and is known for his findings about trial and error learning, expressed in what three great laws?
the law of effect
the law of readiness
the law of exercise
What is the law of effect?
a response followed by a satisfying stimulus or removal of annoying stimulus will be repeated (give yourself a reward every time you study)
What is the law of readiness?
satisfaction or annoyance depends on the neuronal readiness of the organism (study when your mind is fresh)
What is the law of excercise?
S-R connections are strengthened with use and weakened by disuse - though the effect is weak without response effects (the more you review the material the better you'll do on the test)
Watson is considered the founder of?
What's behaviorism?
a movement to define psychology as the study of observable behavior
Watson worked with children and is famous for showing that ______ can be conditioned.
In Watson's experiments, a Little Albert is playing with a rat when Watson bangs a pipe with a hammer. What's going to happen in the future when Little Albert sees a rat?
He will learn to fear them as he will associate them with the bad sound.
Watson also taught that learning is the result of the _____ and _____ of unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus pairings, not the associated effect.
frequency & recency
Skinner had many contributions to understanding behavior. He...
designed the skinner box, differentiated respondent and operant conditioning, demonstrated the effects of schedules of reinforcement, believed pleasure and pain are feelings associated with the consequence of behavior, not motivation for behavior, believed the survival value of the consequence "causes" behavior, believed thinking is a behavior and is fashioned by the environment (the situation and the consequences)
What is operant behavior?
behavior controlled by its consequences
What is R-type behavior?
behavior controlled by its consequences
What is instrumental behavior?
behavior controlled by its consequences
What is S-type learning a.k.a. classical or respondent conditioning?
learning that occurs through pairing a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus that produces a conditioned response
What is a positive reinforcer?
an event whose presentation following an operant response, strengthens the probability of that response
What is a negative reinforcer?
A stimulus or event whose termination strenthens the probabilty of the preceding response
What is punishment?
pairing an aversive stimuli (or removal of a positive stimulus) to a response for the purpose of decreasing the response
What is shaping?
the process of reinforcing behaviors in the desired direction (or successive approximation) of change
What is extinction?
the termination of a previously learned contingency between a response and a reinforcer. the usual effect of the removal of a reinforcer
What is a schedule of reinforcement?
the ratio of reinforced behaviors to non-reinforced behaviors. the rule denoting how many or which responses will be reinforced
What is the most resilient schedule of reinforcement?
variable ratio reinforcement
Why is variable ratio reinforcement the most resilient schedule of reinforcement?
because you know reinforcement is coming if you do the behavior, you just don't know when, so you can't predict when you can stop the behavior
What did Skinner think is the ultimate cause of behavior?
The survival value of the consequence of behavior
What is radical behaviorism?
originally, it refers to denying the relevance to psychology of anything that is not publicly observable (ie only environmental stimuli and responses were considered). more recently, it's the comprehensive analysis of all forms of activity, even those that aren't publicly observable, according to behavioral principles. the emphasis on explaining behavior is on environmental determinants
Name one Hullian cause of behavior.
internally: drive (eg hours of deprivation, behavior fatigue, learned inhibition, & individual variation;
externally: habit strength (# of pairings of stimulus with reinforced response), the incentive vaule of reinforcements available to reduce drive, & the strength of stimuli
Identify three behavior theorists who can properly be considered cognitivists...
Tolman, Wertheimer, Kohler, Lewin, Rotter, Fishbein, Agzen, Hochbaum, Leventhal, Rosenstock, Bandura, & Prochaska
Name a famous early Gestalt psychologist.
Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka; Tolman & Lewin could also be named but they are known for more than they're gestalt thinking
What is a gestalt?
it's when you literally get it all at once or you don't; it's learning in whole chunks
Gestalt physchologists believe you must study the whole of an experience (the phenomena) not just it parts (SR or structures). Thus they are...
Wertheimer gave us the Phi phenomena. What is that?
the perception of motion produced by a serious of still images. for example the classic "eat at joes" sign that has an "arrow" of flashing sequential lights creating a sense of movement toward Joes. When you "see" the illusion, that's a gestalt
What conclusion did Kohler's chimp experiments lead to?
learning is discontinuous with leaps of insight (the "aha experience")
What is Tolman's principle?
we form cognitive maps to the goal and generally follow the easiest route to a goal
Lewin gave us _____ theory & _____ psychology
field; topological and social
The diagram of choosing between chillin with your friends or gettin an A in a course is an example of Lewinian _____ in topological psychology
life space
The formula B=f(PE) stands for what and is attributed to who?
Behavior is a function of the person and the environment. Lewin
Who is the founder of social psychology?
Like Tolman, Lewin believed that that behavior was goal directed, but was influenced by the _____ of the physchological object
It is generally believed that it is easier to change individuals as individuals than individuals as parts of groups. T or F
False: Lewin proved it is often easier to change groups (sometimes it only takes changing the view of one person in a group and the rest will follow)
A resonable summary of Gestalt contributions to understanding behavior might be...
internally we require: mental expectancies based on observed S-R connections, self-chosen goals that direct behavior based on expectancies, the momentary perception of the meaning of data, the requirement for mental processing, & the presence of competing goals and different access to goals;
externally we need: stimulus pattersn, S-R associations, group membership
In the Theory of Reasoned action behavior is best predicted by?
In the Theory of Reasoned action intention is best predicted by?
attitude toward the behavior & subjective norm for the behavior
In the Theory of Reasoned action attitude toward an action is determined by the person's beliefs that the action leads to certain _____ and his/her _____ of these.
outcomes, value
The Theory of Reasoned action is known as an _____ theory.
In the Theory of Reasoned action subjective norm is determined by the person's beliefs that individuals or groups that are _____ to the subject _____ and his/her _____ with these perceived beliefs.
important, think he should or should not perform the act, motivation to comply
The Theory of Planned Behavior is the same as the theory of reasoned action except that it added an extra variable _____
perceived behavioral control
Perceived behavioral control is predicted by _____
control beliefs * perceived power
Control beliefs are
the perceived presence of factors that facilitate or impede performance of a behavior. Control beliefs in combination with the perceived power of each control factor determine perceived behavioral control
What predicts behavior in the theory of planned behavior?
intentions to act and perceived behavioral control
What predicts intentions inthe theory of planned behavior?
attitutes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control
Name the five components that determine a health action in the Health Belief Model.
belief in susceptibility to a disease/injury, belief in severity of consequence of this disease/injury, belief in the benefits of action (ie belief that efficacious actions exist that will eliminate the threat), belief that the barriers to action can be overcome, cues to prompt action exist
In the HBM the likelihood of taking a recommended health action is determined by which modifiable factor?
the perceived threat of disease
In the HBM the perceived threat of disease is determined by two individual perceptions:
your belief in your perceived susceptibility to the disease & the seriousness of the disease
In the HBM both beliefs and threats can be modified by
demographic variables (age, sex, race, ethnicity); Sociophychological variables (personality, social class, peer and reference group pressure); structural variables (knowledge about disease, prior contact with disease
In the HBM threat alone is not enough to make someone take action you must also believe in the...
perceived benefits of preventive action and that there's no significant barriers to preventive action
So what determines action in the HBM?
the magnitude of the perceived threat & the strength of the belief in the benfit of an action and there being no significant barriers to the action
The Dual Process model, formed around 1970, is the work of?
The Dual Process model says that you can have two types of responses to a health message _______ & ________?
cognitive response & emotional response
What is the importance/utility of the Dual Process Model?
It tells you that you must consider both the cognitive and emotional components of proposed health messages to determine if they will work.
Rogers gave us protection motivation theory which says that you can have two different reactions to health information calling them...
maladaptive responses & adaptive responses
In protection motivation theory what determines the initial strength of the maladaptive response?
the vaule of the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for the maladaptive behaviors
Rogers noted that maladaptive behaviors can be weakened by two beliefs:
the belief that the threat is severe plus the belief that you are susceptible/vulnerable to it
intrinsic extrinsic rewards minus serverity/vulnerability equals
threat appraisal
in protection motivation theory your adaptive behaviors are strengthened by two beliefs:
the belief than an action can remove the threat (response efficacy) and your belief that you can do the action (self efficacy)
response efficacy and self efficacy minus response costs equals
coping appraisal
protection motivation is determined by:
threat appraisal, fear arousal, & coping appraisal
What predicts action in the protection motivation theory?
protection motivation
What three things predict the level of protection motivation?
threat appraisal, coping appraisal, & fear
What assesses your appraised level of threat in protection motivation theory?
The value of the intrinsic plus extrinsic rewards for not acting minus the severity plus susceptibility to the threat.
What assesses your appraised level of coping in protection motivation theory?
your appraisal of the efficacy of the response plus your assessment of your ability to do the response minus the psychological and physical costs of responding
What is reciprocal determinism?
The understanding that person (cognitive capacity...), behavior, and environment determine each other.
What does Bandura mean by "person"?
"person" in social cognitive theory refers primarily to our thinking capabilities
List three components of Bandura's personal agency.
The ability:
1. to use symbols - that is our ability to form mental images and verbal expressions in the form of concepts, rules, a propositions. you can think of these as expression of beliefs.
2. engage in forethought - anticipate consequences, set goals, envision futures
3. learn vicariously - most learning is acquired by watching others
4. self-regulate behavior through three sequential sub-processes 1) self observation, 2) judgement by comparison to developed standards and values, 3) self-reactions (+,-,0) to our behavior
5. Self-reflect on our experiences and thinking. the most central of these reflections being our sense of self-efficacy
2001 paper: intentionality, fore-thought, self-reactiveness, & self-reflectiveness
Name 4 (of 6) social cognitive theory variables that determine health actions.
self efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, knowledge of risk and benefit, impediments (a.k.a. barriers) perceived facilitators
Name 2 types of expectancies that are important in social cognitive theory.
efficacy expectations, outcome expectations
What are the three types of outcome expectations in social cognitive theory?
physical, social, self-evaluative
What three social cognitive theory variables can self efficacy act through to affect behavior?
outcome expectations (people with high se visualize successful outcomes), goals (people with high se set higher goals), impediments (people with high se are more likely to see barriers as being surmountable
What directly predicts behavior in social cognitive theory?
self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals
Name three ways that Bandura says you can increase self-efficacy expectations.
by just trying it and succeeding (performance accomplishments), by watching how others succeed (vicarious experience), by being talked into action (verbal persuasion), or by controlling emotional arousal
Given any one source of efficacy information give an example of how you can induce it.
performance accomplishments: performance exposure; vicarious experience: live modeling; verbal persuasion: suggestion; emotional arousal: relaxation, biofeedback
How does setting goals enhance motivation?
Goals enhance motivation through self-reactive influences as follows: When individuals commit themselves to explicit goals, perceived negative discrepancies between what they do and what they seek to achieve, this creates self-dissatisfaction that serves as incentives for enhanced effort.
Given that you must react to the discrepancy between goals and action, what two self-reactive influences are at play?
self evaluation & self efficacy
Bandura observes that commitment to a goal depends on three things. What are they?
value of the activity, perceived attainability (self-efficacy), binding pledges
Name 3 (of 4) things a person must do for observational learning to occur.
attend, retain, physically reproduce, & be motivated
What are 3 (of 4) components of intentional behavior in the transtheoretical model?
stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, & self-efficacy
What is stage of change?
the belief that people move toward maintaining new behaviors through a spiral set of stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination...followed again by pre-contemplation
How is contemplation defined in stage of change theory?
subject indicates serious thinking about changing in the next six months
How is preparation defined in stage of change theory?
Subject indicates that he/she is planning to change in the next month, or has made some changes, but is not yet at the desired level of change.
How is "action" defined in stage of change theory?
subject indicates he/she has reached the desired criteria within the last six months
How is "maintenance" defined in stage of change theory?
subject indicates he/she has been performing at the crierion level for more than six months
What happens to self-efficacy as you move across the stages of change?
it increases
What happens to the temptation to relapse across stages of change?
it decreases
Name one transtheoretical model (TM) process that may move a person from pre-contemplation into contemplation.
consciousness raising: increasing information about self & the problem; dramatic relief: experiencing psychological drama related to the problem; environmental reevaluation: assessing the impact of your actions on the environment (displaying empathy)
Name one TM process that may move a person from contemplation into preparation.
self-reevaluation: assessing feelings/thoughts about self & the problem
Name one TM process that may move a person from preparation into action.
self liberation: make a resolution
Name one TM process that may move a person from action into maintenance.
stimulus control, reinforcement management, seek help from others, counter-conditioning, social liberation
What does the decision/balance theory say about stage of change?
to move from precontemplation to contemplation, the emphasis must be on the pros of the behavior; to move from contemplation into preparation and action, the emphasis must be on reducing the cons (costs) of the behavior
How would you know what the most recent behaviour trends are in the United States?
get data from CDC-wonder, BRFSS, national health interview survey
About how many deaths a year are attributable to tobacco in the United States?
400-500 K
T or F: Deaths attributable to tobacco use have been found to exeed deaths from AIDS, traffic accidents, alcohol use, suicide, homicide, fire, and use of illegal drugs combined.
If the current pattern for smoking continues it is estimated that ______ persons who were under the age of 18 in 1995 will die from smoking-related disease.
Name three of six cancers that smoking causes.
lung, mouth, throat
What is the most important modifiable cause of a poor pregnancy outcome?
not smoking
List two possible complications incurred during pregnancy as a result of smoking?
low birthweight, spontaneous abortions
The addictive strength of nicotine is estimable by the fact that of the 70% of smokers who want to quit, only _____% are able to permanently quit each year.
What are two demographic race groups with the highest smoking prevalence, and what is that prevalence?
American Indians & Alaska natives (34%)
Name one of the two demographic race groups with the lowest smoking prevalence and indicate what it is.
Hispanics, Asians, and Pacific Islanders (16%)
Quantitatively, how does the prevalence of smoking compare between poor and affluent persons.
poor people smoke twice as much
What is the prevalence of smoking in US high schools?
girls almost equal boys
Define the terms overweight and obese.
OW: BMI 25-30
Obese: BMI greater than 30
Poor diet and lack of physical activity causes about how many deaths per yaer in the United States?
500 K
What percent of the family food budget is spent on eating out and why is this important (list two things)?
high fat, larger portions
List four health effects of weight gain and obesity.
hypertension, some forms of cancer, coronary heart disease, sleep apnea, gall bladder disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, respiratory problems, musculoskeletal problems
What cancers if any are reliably associate with obesity?
activity dependent: colon
activity independent: breast & endometrial
Which factors contribute to obesity?
lack of physical activity, genetic factors, detrimental dietary patterns
Studies indicate that the obesity epidemic in America began about 1970. According to IOM, what two things changed in the 1970s that contributed to it?
more fat in diet & lack of exercise
What is the current prevalence of adults overweight?
About how many deaths a year are attributable to alcohol consumption?
100 K
What percent of people who begin drinking before the age of 15 develop alcohol dependence at some stage in their lives?
Long-term excess drinking causes a variety of clinical cardiovascular maladies. Name two.
increases risk for high blood pressure, irregularities of heart rhythm, disorders of the heart muscle, and stroke
Long term-excess drinking causes several cancers. Name two.
esophagus, mouth, throat, voice box, colon, and rectum
Describe the relationship between education and heavy alcohol consumption.
less educated people drink more heavily; moderate drinking increases with education
What % of Americans will be involved in an alcohol related crash?
What are the benefits of moderate drinking and for who?
reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and thrombotic stroke for those most at risk, men over 45 and women after menopause
Cite two reasons why it's unethical for government to advocate for alcohol consumption?
no evidence that moderate drinking is harmless & overwhelming evidence that heavy drinking is harmful
Describe the lifetime occurance of any sexually transmitted infection for those with only one partner to those with more than twenty partners after the age of 18.
from 4% to 40.4%
What are two factors affecting increased rate of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases?
people don't know they have the disease, don't seek medical care, lack of proctection, multiple partners
The most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in the US is
Recent surveys have indicated that ______ had no knowledge about their partner's sexual history
25% of married women and 20% of married men
Syphilis has declined since 1990 in the US in all ethnic groups except?
American Indians & Alaska Natives
Epidemiologically, which person is most susceptible to an STD
black female age 17
What percent of cervical cancer cases are traced back to HPV?
Name two major test requirements for screening to be considered effective.
First, the test must be able to detect the target condition earlier
than would be possible without screening and with enough accuracy to preclude large numbers
of false-positive and false-negative results. Second, screening for and treating persons with early
disease should improve the likelihood of favorable health outcomes (e.g., reduced diseasespecific
morbidity or mortality) as compared with what would happen in treating patients who
present on their own with signs or symptoms of the disease. In addition, the tests must be costeffective
and acceptable to the target population

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