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The study of the interactions between societies and the natural enviornments they live in.
Cultural ecology
Systematic aproach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.
Earth system science
The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century BC; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography".
Pertaining to the unigque facts or characteristics of a particular place.
Inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic "Man and Nature, or PHysical Geography as modified by Human Action", provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
George Perkins Marsh
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally
He claimed that geography drw from four distinct traditions: earth-science, culture-environment, locational, and area-analysis.
W.D. Pattison
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of "Guide to Geography" which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude
Humanistic approach - interviewws, etc.
Qualitative data
Mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association
A period in human geograpy associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques
Quantitative revolution
Observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images
Remote sensing
Geographer from UCBerkeley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. THe landscape results from interaction between humans the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape had escape
Carl Sauer
An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is where it is, and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places.
Spatial perspective.
a map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface.
Azimuthal Projection
the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply.
Breaking point
A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area.
choropleth map
an image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships between locatsions as well as prsonal perceptions and preferences of particular places.
cognitive map
the actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring ot economic interactions
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places.
the decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases.
distance decay effect
thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific ovservations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.
dot maps
a measure or how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
friction of distance
a type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directsion no longer have meaning.
Fuller projection
the actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north-south circumference.
a mathematical formula that describes the level or interaction between two places, based on teh size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Gravity model.
the idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the close of the two sppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able t
intervening opportunities
map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.
isoline map
law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them.
law of retail gravitation.
on a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular politcal unit or jurisdiction.
location charts
East-West (made up)
North-South (scientific)
Longitude; latitude
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, these maps are particulary usefrul for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. These maps are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
Mercator projection
A line of longitude that runs north-south. All lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles
An east-west line of latitude that runs paralel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator
a thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol - such as a circle- indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
proportional symbols map
a measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the frction of absolute distance separating two places. often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places.
relative distance.
projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. it does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction but it minimizes errors in each
robinson projection
the absolute location of a place, desribed by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
the relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristcs of a surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context.
refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cltural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space.
spatial diffusion
a type of map that displays one or more variables - such as population, or income lvel - within a specific area
thematic map
the amount of connectivity between places, regardless of the absolute distance separating them
topological space
the costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
a population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit
the number of libe births per year per 1000 people
crude birth rate
an equation that summarizes teh amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration
demographihc accounting equation
the study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics
the ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their ownn labor. this is usually expressed in the form n:100 where n equals the number of dependents
dependency ratio
time period required for a population expperiencing exponential growth to double in size completely
doubling time
Author of "essay on the pinciple of population 1798" who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food producation increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growh would outpace food producation
Thomas malthus
Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations
A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
Population Geography
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spirtiual and even supernatural powers (objects are assigned powers)
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it
people who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity
The proportion of the earth inhabited by humans
a doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions
environmental determinism
refers to a group of people who share a common identity
the strict adherence to a particular doctrine
a colletion of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics
language family
a set of languages wtih a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
language group
an extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usuallyu used for quick and efficient communication
lingua franca
language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. some characterstics of each language
traditions that borrow from both the past and present
a boundary line established before an area is populated
antecedent boundaries
forces that tend to divide a country
centrifugal force
forces that tend to unite or bind a country together
cenripetal force
confederacy of independent states of teh former Soviet Union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs
Commenwealth of Independent States
a state that possessses a roughly circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from teh geometric center is relatively equal in all directions
compact state
the idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring contries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
domino theory
geographic separation between the largely democratic and free-market coutnries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern europe and Asia
east/west divide
a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separatd from it by the territory of a different state
a system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government
the study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
the designation of voting districts soas to favor a particular poltical party or candidate
hypothesis proposed by HALFORD MACKINDER that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
heartland theory
law establishing states' rights and responsibilites concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas adn oceans ahd their resources
law of the sea
hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the german people
tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion and other cultural attributes
the view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth, maturity and old age
organic theory
a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state
perforated state
a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated lang extension leading away from the main territory
prorupted state
nicholas spykman's theory that the domination f the coastl fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
rimland theory
boundary line established after an area has been setled that considres the social and cultural characteristics of the area
subsequent boundaries
boundary line drawn in an area ingnoring the existing cultural pattern
superimposed boundaries
regions taht fail to gain from national economic development
economic backwaters
manufacturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determing the location of the firm
footloose firms
the movemens of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, adn highland areas in the summer
an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural acivity in terms of rent. activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay high er rent to be close to the market. conversely, activies that are m
von thunen model
grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor reousrces
economic activies that surround and support large-scale industries such as shipping and food service
ancillary activies
a model of the spatial structure of development in which udnerdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developled core region
core-peripheray model

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