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USAD - Amy - Lang & Lit


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The writings of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries did what for the world of literature?
marked a shift from Latin to the vernacular; witnessed experimentation with new literary forms; marked a new interest in a variety of secular subjects
Who served as models and inspirations to the English writers of the sixteenth century?
Petrarch and Boccaccio
What genre experienced a resurgance of writing?
When did the War of the Roses end?
What brought about the decline of the influence of the Catholic Church in England?
Henry VIII's need for a divorce, and the resulting Reformation
When did the England defeat the Spanish Armada?
What language began replacing Latin as the predominant language of serious writing?
Literacy increased due to the development of what?
the printing press
The literature of the 16th century was no longer limited to the church and court but instead had a (larger/smaller) circulation due to the invention of the printing press.
What sparked the revival of classical learning after 1453?
the manuscripts being brought to Europe by scholars who had escaped Constantinople after its fall in 1453.
When did Constantinople fall?
What were the two effects of ancient manuscripts being tanslated into English?
classical standards were applied to works written int he vernacular; English humanists took interest in creating a new concept of a good life based on classical ethics
During the 16th century, the recently acquired wealth of english gentlmen offered them what, impacting the literature of the period.
oportunities to travel and encounter other cultuers
What were the earliest English plays called?
miracles and/or mysteries
The earliest English plays developed from religious services, just like the plays dedicated to Dionysus, a god from _____.
Ancient Greece
Miracles and mysteries were originally performed where?
inside churches
What is the title of the most famous of the surviving morality plays, dating from the late 15th century?
The short farcical plays performed for occasional relief from moral and religious plays were called what?
The renewed interest in Greek and Latin literature led to what?
longer comedies based on Latin models
What are two of the comedies based off of the Latin comedies based of the works of Plautus and Terence?
Ralph Roister Doister (c. 1553), and Gammer Gurton's Needle (c. 1533)
Who wrote Ralph Roister Doister in 1553?
Nicholas Udall, a schoolmaster
Who wrote Gammer Gurton's Needle in 1533?
We don't know. It's an anonymous work.
Latin tragedies were modeled after the tragedies of who?
What was the title of the most famous of the tragedies modeled after Seneca?
Who wrote Gorboduc?
Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton
Ralph Roister Doister, Gammer Gurton's Needle, and Gorboduc were written to be what?
amateur performances by schoolboys or university students
Gorboduc was written in _____, newly imported from Italy.
blank verse
Who built the first theatre in London?
James Burbage
What did James Burbage call his theatre?
The Theatre
List the London theatres in the order in which they opened: Blackfriars, Globe, Theatre.
The Theatre, The Globe, then the Blackfriars
What shape was The Theatre and the Globe Theatre?
How many galleries did the The Theatre and the Globe Theatre have?
three levels
What shape was the stage and the pit of The Theatre and the Globe?
Who played female roles?
young boys
How was love expressed on stage?
through language alone because the female roles were acted by young boys
Were the costumes elaborate or minimal?
Was the scenery elaborate or minimal?
Because plays were performed in daylight, playwrights had to compensate for lighting by using what?
language and imagery (think the balcony scene in romeo and Juliet)
Why did playwrights have to include language to take care of entrances, exits, and the removal of corpses?
Because there were no curtains and they had no control of lighting (everything was performed in daylight)
Why was the lack of scenery advantagious to playwrights?
Changing scenes was very easy because there was minimal scenery to change
When did William Shakespeare appear in London?
around 1584
Who especially prepared the way for Shakespeare to succeed on the stage?
How old was Marlowe when he died?
What verse style did Marlowe utilize in all of his plays?
blank verse
What theme did all of Matrlowe's plays focus on?
a single individual with overreaching ambitions for which he was willing to die
What was Marlowe's occupation when he wrote TAmburlaine?
The play, Dr. Faustus, was based off what?
a Germanic legend
What two things did Shakespeare learn from Marlowe?
how to focus on a powerful character and how to handle blank verse
How much do we know about Shakespeare's life?
very little
In what century was the first biography of Shakespeare written?
18th century
Who published the first biogrpahy of Shakespeare?
Nicholas Rowe
When was the first biography of Shakespeare published?
What was Rowe's biography was based on?
Why did Rowe conclude that Shakespeare was ignorant due to a lack of education?
Shakespeare often neglected the Greek unities of place and time
Did Shakespeare attend Cambridge?
Where was Shakespeare educated?
at the well-endowed grammer school in Stratford, which was offered so that the children of the town could be educated free of charge
What year was Shakespeare christened?
Who is the patron saint of England?
St. George
Shakespeare's birthday (and deathday) is usually fixed at April 23, which is also known as _____.
St. George's Day
Whom did Shakespeare marry?
Anne Hathaway
How many children did Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway have?
About how old was Shakespeare when he traveled to London?
about 20 years old
What are the names of Shakespeare's two long narrative poems?
Venus and Adonis, and The Rape of Lucece
Who is Venus and Adonis dedicated to?
Shakespeare's patron, the Earl of Southampton
Who is The Rape of Lucece dedicated to?
Shakespeare's patron, the Earl of Southampton
Why did London theatres close from 1591-1593?
the outbreak of the plague
What was the name of Shakespeare's acting company?
Lord Chamberlain's Men
Who was the patron of the Lord Chamberlain's Men?
Queen Elizabeth, and later King James
After King James ascended the thrown, what did the Lord Chamberlain's Men change their name to?
the King's Men
About how many plays did Shakespeare produce?
an average of 2 a year, for 20 years
When did Shakespeare die?
Who did acting companies registered their playbooks with to prevent pirating?
Stationers' Register
How many of Shakespeare's plays were published without his permission during his lifetime?
What types of plays are included in Shakespeare's first group?
early comedies and his first cycle of history plays
What types of plays are included in Shakespeare's second group?
the great comedies, the second history cycle, and Romeo and Juliet
What plays are included in Shakespeare's third group?
the seven great tragedies and the problem plays
What types of plays are included in the fourth group?
the Romances
What is the most famous of Shakespeare's romance works?
The Tempest
What three things did Shakespeare and his contemporaries do to put their own stamp on tragedy?
developed a more loosely structured plot (included subplots); a larger cast of characters; mixed serious and comic elements;
What is parallelism?
a sentence style in which sentence elements that are alike in function are also alike in grammatical form
What is an anaphora?
the repetition of an identical word or group of words in successive clauses
What is hyperbole?
exaggeration for the sake of rhetorical effect
What is an allusion?
a referene to someone or something outside the work; allusions can be made to a historical or literay character or event
What is litotes?
an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite
What is a tragic hero?
a character of high stature who moves from prosperity to adversity through some mistake in judgment
Define "catharsis"
audience's feeling of exaltation at the end of tragedy when emotions of pity and tragedy have been aroused and purged
Define "hamartia"
error in judgment by tragic hero that leads to his/her downfall
Define "hubris"
tragic hero's excessive pride and self-confidence
What is the peripeteia?
the tragic hero's reversal of fortune
What is the anagnorisis?
the tragic hero's moment of enlightenment
Where is Antony & Cleopatra set?
Rome, Alexandria, Athens, Parthia, and Sicily
How many scenes does Antony and Cleopatra have?
What are the major themes of Antony & Cleopatra (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)?
politics, leadership, love, youth and age, passion and responsibility, fickleness of the crowd
Define "litotes"
an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite
Describe Antony (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)?
great soldier, torn between power and Cleopatra
Describe Cleopatra (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab?
fascinating and cunning, regal in the end
Describe Octavius Caesar (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
competent and ruthless
Describe Octavia (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
used as a political pawn, gentle and kind
Describe Charmian and Iras(according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
loyal to Cleopatra
Describe Enobarbus (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
cynical commentator on the action
Describe Lepidus (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
weak but well-intentioned triumvir
Describe Pompey (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
ambitious but weak
Describe Ventidius (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
Antony's lieutenant in Parthia
Describe Benedick (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
confirmed bachelor, scornful of love, witty
Describe Beatrice (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
scornful of love and marriage; witty and kind
Describe Claudio (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
brave and impulsive soldier
Describe Hero (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
beautiful and conventional, falsely accused
Describe Margaret (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
maid to Hero who unwittingly joins plot against her
Describe Don Pedro (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
aristocratic Spaniard visiting Messina
Describe Leonato (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
father of Hero
Describe Don John (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
bastard brother of Don Pedro
Describe Borachio (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
devises plot against Hero for money
Describe Dogberry, Verges and the Watch (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
comic relief, hold clue to the play's resolution
Describe Friar Francis (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
priest who recognized Hero's innocence and comes up with a plan to save her
When was Antony & Cleopatra entered into the Stationers' Register?
Where did Shakespeare find his material for tragedy?
in the heroic past, like his Greek predecessors
What is the paradox of tragedy?
The paradox of tragedy is that the heroes and heroines are knowingly undone by their most admirable traits.
What causes the downfall of Antony and Cleopatra?
their transcendent love and devotion to each other
Why does Shakespeare usually not permit the suicide of his tragic heroes?
He is mindful fo Christian doctrine. The only exception to this was in his Roman tragedies, because he can't rewrite history and in ancient Rome, suicide was considered the honorable course.
Why does Shakespeare offer little explanation of the events in Antony & Cleopatra?
Because the historical background of Antony & Cleopatra would have been well known to the audience of Shakespeare's day
What are the names of the three triumvirs in Antony & Cleopatra?
Antony, Octavious Caesar, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
What land did Antony control?
the eastern provinces
What land did Octavius control?
the western provinces
What land di Lepidus control?
The action of Antony and Cleopatra covers what period of (historical) time?
40 to 30 BC
Who threatens the security of the triumvirate?
When did the Battle of Actium take place?
31 BC
After Antony and Cleopatra both died, what did Octavius Caesar do?
He returned to Rome, took the title of Augustus, and reigned as Rome's first emporer until 14 AD
What was Shakespeare's main source of information for Antony & Cleopatra?
Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans by Plutarch
Who was likely the translator of the edition of Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans Shakespeare used when researching Antony & Cleopatra?
Sir Thomas North
How does Shakespeare's rendition of Antony & Cleopatra different from Plutarch's?
Shakespeare's attitude is different, giving the description of Cleopatra in Cydnus to the cynical Enobarbus
In what ways are Virgil's Aeneid and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra alike?
both have aspects of a historical chronical as they follow a hero through a series of incidents, including his dallying with a North African queen
Why did early critics attack Antony & Cleopatra's apparently haphazard construction of the play?
Because the early critics were aware of the Greek unities of time, place, and even action, which Shakespeare completely ignored.
In Antony & CLeopatra, what purpose does the apparent messiness of the rapid changes of short scenes serve?
It enhances major themes (such as the contrast between stern and disciplined Rome and the luxurious pleasures of Egypt.)
In what scene do messengers first appear in Antony & Cleopatra?
the first scene (a messenger arrives from Rome)
What purpose do messengers serve?
their news advances the plot and their treatment reveals characters' personality traits
Why did Shakespeare mix comedy with tragdy?
He understood that comedy and tragedy are not clearly separated in real-life situations.
"Shakespeare's tragedies usually contain ghosts, soothsayers, omens, or other supernatural elements." Which of those supernatural elements are found in Antony & Cleopatra?
soothsayer & omens; the soothsayer interprets the swallows nesting in Cleopatra's boats as a bad omen
Define "synecdoche." (pronounced sin-ek'-doe-key)
the use of the part for the whole; i.e. hired hands, head of cattle
Define "apostrophe."
the direct address of an abstraction or a person not present
Define "syntax."
the way words, phrases, and clauses are combined to form sentences; (i.e. sentence structure, and word order)
What is an epic?
an extended narrative of a nation's heroic past
What is lyric poetry?
a type of poetry expressing the speaker's personal thoughts or feelings; usually short;
What is narrative poetry?
non-dramatic verse that tells a story
What is dramatic poetry?
poetry where a character speaks
What is a dramatic monologue?
a poem in which the poet assumes the persona of one character and spaks through him/her
In poetry, what is meter?
a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
Define "rhyme."
repetition of accented vowel sound at the end of a line
Define "masculine rhyme."
rhyme involving only one syllable
Define "feminine rhyme."
rhyme involving more than one syllable
Define "internal rhyme."
rhyme in the middle of the line, rhyming with word at the end of the line
Define "eye rhyme."
rhyming that depends on spelling rather than sound
Define "slant rhyme."
inexact rhyme
Define "blank verse."
unrhymed iambic pentameter
What are couplets?
pairs of rhyming lines
What are heroic couplets?
couplets in iambic pentameter
What are closed couplets?
couplets that form complete sentences ending in periods or semi-colons
What does it mean when a poem is "end-stopped?"
describes lines of poetry that end with a period or semi-colon
What is enjambment?
continuation of the sense of one line to another without a grammatical pause
What is free verse?
verse without rhyme or a regular metrical pattern
What is a stanza?
a group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem
What is a ballad?
a narrative poem originally designed to be sung
What is a ballad stanza?
a quatrain of alternate iambic tetrametera nd trimeter lines, rhyming abab
What is rhyme royal?
a seven-line stanza in iambic pentameter rhyming ababbcc
What is a sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter with a complicated rhyme scheme
What is a Petrarchan sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter rhyming abba abba cdecde
What is an English sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter rhyming abba abba cddc ee
What is a Shakespearean sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter rhyming abab cdcd efef gg
What is a Spenserian sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter rhyming abab bcbc cdcd ee
What is alliteration?
the repetition of initial consonants
What is assonance?
repetition of vowel sounds, usually in stressed syllables
What is consonance?
repetition of consonant sounds that are preceded by different vowel sounds
What is onomatopoeia?
direct verbal imitation of natural sounds
What is an aubade?
a song of regret sung by lovers who must part at dawn
What is an epic simile?
an elaborate extended simile
What is a caesura?
a natural rhythmic pause in a line of verse
What is inversion?
reversing the natural word order to accommodate meter or rhyme
What is Metaphysical Conceit?
extended comparison of objects that are dissimilar
What is an ode?
a longer lyric poem on a serious subject
What is pathetic fallacy?
attributing human emotions to inanimate objects
What is substitution?
the use of a foot other than the one demanded by the meter (usually trochaic for iambic at the beginning of a line)
What is a transferred epithet?
an adjective used to describe a noun to which it doesn't usually apply
Which of our short selection pieces did Sir Thomas Wyatt write?
"They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek"
What are the birth/death dates for Sir Thomas Wyatt?
What are Wyatt's notable accomplishments?
courtier and diplomat; discovered sonnet and blank verse in Italy; experimented with form and meter; used Petrarchan themes
Which of our short selection pieces did Edmund Spenser write?
Sonnet LIIII
What are the birth/death dates for Edmund Spenser?
c.1552 - 1599
What are Spenser's notable accomplishments?
experimented with meter; The Faerie Queene; Spenserian stanza; Spenserian sonnet
Which of our short selection pieces did Christopher Marlowe write?
"The Passionate Shepherd to his Love"
What are the birth/death dates for Christopher Marlowe?
c.1564 - 1593
What are Marlowe's notable accomplishments?
early tragedies; translations of Ovid; Hero and Leander; pastoral poetry
Which of our short selections did William Shakespeare write?
Sonnet 30
What are the birth/death dates for Shakespeare?
What are Shakespeare's notable accomplishments?
tragedies and comedies; narrative poems; sonnets; variety of themes
Which of our short selection pieces was written by John Donne?
The Sun Rising
What are the birth/death dates for Donne?
What are John Donne's notable accomplishments?
Dean of St. Paul's; sermons and meditations; religious and love poems; emotion and intellect; neutral style
Which of our short selection pieces was written by Francis Bacon?
Of Travel
What are the birth/death dates for Francis Bacon?
What are Bacon's accomplishments?
statesman and philosopher; arrest for bribery; essays and longer prose works; Latinate style
Who wrote "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
Sir Thomas Wyatt
Who wrote Sonnet LIIII?
Edmund Spenser
Who wrote "The Passionate Shepherd to his Love"
Christopher Marlowe
Who wrote Sonnet 30?
William Shakespeare
Who wrote "The Sun Rising?"
John Donne
Who wrote "Of Travel?"
Francis Bacon
Who wrote The Faerie Queene?
Edmund Spenser
What are the major themes of Much Ado About Nothing?
deception, love, noting
What is the setting of Much Ado About Nothing?
Messina, Sicily, soon after the war; action lasts just over a week
Why are Lepidus and Octavius concerned about Antony spending time in Egypt?
The stability of the known world depends on the strength and cooperation of the three men, therefore Antony's conduct is not merely personal, but can affect the stability of the empire.
Which character in Antony & Cleopatra is hugely popular with his men for his conviviality, his generosity, and his sharing of his solderis' hardships?
Which character in Antony & Cleopatra is calculatingly efficient?
How do Antony & Cleopatra express their love for one another in the play?
through magnificent speeches
How old is Octavius at the time of the action within Antony & Cleopatra?
How old is Cleopatra at the time of the action within Antony & Cleopatra?
Name Antony's two wives.
Fulvia & Octavia
Whose lead does Antony follow in the Battle of Actium?
How does Shakespeare's Antony compare to Plutarch's Antony?
Shakespeare's treatment of Antony is kinder whereas Plutarch took a more moralistic approach and paused to praise or blame
How does Shakespeare portray Antony? (less-than-life, life-sized, larger-than-life)
larger than life
What is the attitude of Antony's officers in the first scene of the play?
disappointment in his declining soldiership as a result of his obsession with Cleopatra
Which of Antony's servants deserts him after the Battle of Actium?
How does Antony's losing the Battle of Actium demonstrate the integrity of his character?
It shows his commitment to Cleopatra even when such action will bring about his own destruction
How many scenes of Antony's debauchery are dramatically presented?
Do Antony's officers make derogatory comments about Antony's lifestyle (his "gaudy nights"?
What does Antony believe represents "the nobleness of life?"
feasting and revelry
Which character makes the most derogatory comments about Antony's lifestyle?
Which author describes Antony's cruelty in more detail, Plutarch or Shakespeare?
Who does Antony compare the love he shares with Cleopatra with?
the love of Dido and Aeneas
Where does Antony die?
in Cleopatra's arms
Who dies first, Antony or Cleopatra?
What does Antony NOT do upon hearing that Cleopatra's death is a trick?
he does not berate her
Where does Shakespeare get his information for the character of Cleopatra?
Does Antony's facination with Cleopatra depend on her beauty?
Who is Isis?
an Egyptian goddess
As Antony is dying, how does he address Cleopatra?
as the embodiment of Egypt: "I am dying, Egypt, dying" (IV, xv, 22)
What is Cleopatra the expert of?
When Cleopatra arrives at Cydnus for her first meeting with Antony, who do both Plutarch and Shakespeare compare her to?
Who does Cleopatra become envious of?
Octavia, Antony's second wife
Who had Cleopatra had affairs with before having an affair with Antony?
Julius Caesar and Gnaius Pompey (the older brother of the Pompey who appears in our play)
Do Antony and Cleopatra view their love realistically or idealistically?
Who does Cleopatra compare Antony to in Act I, Scene 5?
Atlas, she describes Antony as "the demi-Atlas of this earth" (I,v,85; I,v,28)
Why did Cleopatra decide to kill herself with asps?
she decided it would be quick and painless
Who does Cleopatra check with before killing herself to see what Caesar's plans for her are?
Proculeius and Dolabella
What are Cleopatra's last words?
"Husband, I come!" (V,ii,342)
What did Shakespeare do to emphasize the contrast between Antony & Cleopatra?
modified Plutarch's account of Antony & Cleopatra, and he also modified other characters
How is Octavius Caesar presented by Shakespeare?
coldly political man with no personal appetites and a steady mind
What was Caesar's most coldly political act?
arranging the marraige of his sister Octavia to Antony in order to achieve a truce
Is Caesar cynical or optimistic of human nature?
Of the three triumvirs, who always wins in sports and games of chance?
Octavius Caesar
Who's good fortune does Shakespeare use to contrast with Antony's fate?
Octavius Caesar

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