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Chapter 17- History terms and people- Industrial Revolution


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a phase of technological development that began in Britain in the 1750s
Industrial Revolution
people who risked their wealth by investing in new technology or business ventures
the use of private money or goods to produce a profit
a change from food gathering to food producing
Agricultural Revolution
land was divided into strips and worked by the villagers
open-field farming
a method of alternating different kinds of crops to preserve soil fertility
crop rotation
a machine that planted seeds in rows at the proper depth invented by Jethro Tull
seed drill
system of cloth production in which people worked on the cleaning, spinning, and weaving of wool in their homes
domestic system
muscle-powered wooden machine that could spin eight cotton threads at a time, invented by James Hargreaves
spinning jenny
the capital and the equipment needed to produce and exchange goods and use them for the common good of all the people
means of production
a community where people lived and worked together in perfect harmony
Utopian socialism
a group of artisans who often went on strike against factories, attempting to put them out of business because they were mad that machines had put them out of business
trade unions
a general walkout of all workers in the union to receive better pay, hours, or another goal
large water-powered spinning machine invented by Richard Arkwright
water frame
a machine that separated the seeds from cotton more quickly and efficiently than doing it by hand
cotton gin
the growth of cities
the belief in the importance of individual liberty in all areas focusing on freedom of conscience, freedom, thought, and speech as well as pursuing your own economic interests.
the belief that laws should be used only if they bring happiness to a large number of the people and if it does not, the law should be abandoned.
the belief that individual interests must give way to the interests of society as a whole
a steam powered engine that pulled a train of connected cars on iron rails
an electric generator
a machine which burned gasoline
Internal combustion engine
man who used the Dutch technique of crop rotation and spread it in Britain
Lord Townshend
the man who introduced the seed drill and found out that crops grow better without weeds, and he developed the horse-drawn hoe
Jethro Tull
a weaver who invented the spinning jenny
James Hargreaves
the man who invented the water frame and started the first factory. He is often known as the father of the factory system
Richard Arkwright
a preacher who invented the first power loom
Edmund Cartwright
a machine that was first used to pump water out of the mines
steam engine
a machine invented by Edmund Cartwright that could weave thread quicker than doing it by hand
power loom
a man who improved the steam-powered water pump
Thomas Newcomen
a man who improved upon Newcomens invention of the steam- powered water pump using far less fuel. It also used rotary power.
James Watt
the American inventor that invented the cotton gin and interchangeable parts
Eli Whitney
a popular author who wrote the book Hard Times, explaining the conditions of living in the Industrial Revolution
Charles Dickens
a man who believed in following your own true self interest. He was a philosopher of the Enlightenment and influenced the Liberals in the Industrial Revolution in Britain
Adam Smith
a man who felt that the government should be a democracy and should promote education, but it should stay out of peoples lives as much as possible
John Stuart Mill
a utopian socialist who established several model communities that followed utopian socialism
Robert Owen
an American inventor and Entrepreneur who invented the steamship
Robert Fulton
the men who improved roads
John MacAdam and Thomas Telford
the man who invented the locomotive
George Stephenson
the man who improved the telegraph and created the Morse Code
Samuel Morse
inventor of the telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
the man who sent the first radio transmissions across the Atlantic
Guglielmo Marconi
inventor the incandescent light bulb
Thomas Edison
the man who developed the internal combustion engine
Nikolaus August Otto
the men who put an engine on a horse carriage to create the first automobile
Gottlieb Daimler and Carl Benz
used a gasoline-powered engine to fly the first airplane
Wilber and Orville Wright
bridge builders who were considered to be some of the first civil engineers
Thomas Telford and Gustave Eiffel
- business organizations in which large numbers of people purchase shares of stocks or certificates of partial ownership
the man who formed the United States Steel Corporation
J.P. Morgan
people who buy companies as investments
the dominance of a particular market
combinations of similar businesses grouped together under the direction of a single entity
the belief that those that were better adapted to their environment survived long enough to reproduce and pass those adaptations to their offspring
Natural selection
the theory that portrayed individuals and nations as part of the same struggle for survival as the species
Social Darwinism
a new working class that capitalists took advantage of to make their profits
an economic system established through a dictatorship that abolishes private property and takes over the means of production
she was considered to be the perfect role model of the new roles of middle-class women
Queen Victoria
the man who discovered the laws of heredity
Gregor Mendel
the men who formulated the ideas governing magnetism and electricity
Michael Faraday and James Maxwell
the man that discovered that all matter is composed of miniature particles called atoms
John Dalton
the man who discovered bacteria and created a heat treatment method that destroyed bacteria in certain foods and drinks
Louis Pasteur
awarded the Nobel Prize for physics and then eventually chemistry for her work
Marie Curie
a Russian psychologist who discovered that behavior could be controlled by outside factors. He conducted a famous experiment about the conditioned reflex in dogs
Ivan Pavlov
promoted the science of eugenics
Sir Francis Galton
two of the most influential socialists that developed scientific socialism
Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx
the science of the use of selective breeding to improve the human race
the belief that one day the proletariats would overthrow the capitalists and take over
Dictatorship of the proletariat
a belief of many artists and writers of that time that made emotions and feelings more important than intellect and reason
a belief the opposite of romanticism that stressed intellect instead of feelings
a style that some artists believed in that used the illusion of sunlight in their paintings to capture what the camera could not
the approximate date that marks the start of the Industrial Revolution

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