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Humanities Test 1


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What was Robert Rauschenberg's occupation?
What was David Bohm's occupation?
Quantum physicist and philospher.
What was Huston Smith's occupation?
Professor of philosophy and comparative religion.
What is Fritjof Capra's occupation?
Theoretical High Energy Physicist.
What was Francisco Varela's occupation?
Neurophysiologist and cognitive scientist.
What was Marina Abramovich's occupation?
Performance artist.
What is the central Idea that robert Rauchenberb expressed?
Promotes understanding and peace. Educate. What one person does affects the whole world. Allows art to be what it wants to be, rather than what he wants it to be.
What is David Bohm's central idea?
Life and mind in everything. Ecological problems come about through thought. We are the earth. The world is always braking things up into categories. We need to listen without resistance. Wholeness(what you take in determines who you are)
What are the central ideas of Huston Smith?
Our senses and our imagination are false according to science. The future of civilization depends on how sciene and religion come together. There are other religions and cultures that have knowledge of a greater spirit. There is significance in everything.
What are the central idea's of Frijof Capra?
No science without creativity. We need anew way of expressing ourselves. Ecology is the meeting ground. Economics doesn't work because ecolgy is not understood. We need to be in global expansion as far as growth.
What are the cental idea's of Francisco Varela?
We live life without space. What we perceive, we create. Your thinking obscures and hides what is reality. Vision is the trickiest of the senses. Vision is the greatest obstacle to knowledge. Everyone's perception is different, even though we may all be looking at the same thing. Man is always trying to explain, weven if there is no explanation. Very dangerous!
What are the main idea's of Marina Abramovich?
21'st century will be without art. Art and science come about in the same way, both are created. Everyting has it's own wavelengths. Scientist and artist should work together. Not important what you are doing, but rather where you head is at , at the time. Trancending matter!
Explain the thesis and basic arguments in the Rene Descartes' Discourse on Method.
1. Break things into their smallest parts

2. Analyze them

3. Put them into logical order

4. Written in an intimate vernacular that greatly influences the next centry of French thinkers.

Basically known as the "Cartesian" or "analytical method"
What are the central ideas and significance of Frances Bacon?
1. in the advancement of learning, he wants to get rid of ignorance and supersitition through science.

2. Ask the british gov.'t to provide money to expand the science departments.

3. Novum Oranum, inductive reasoning through, experience and experiment.

4. bacon, not a scientist, but influenced many scientist.
What are the central idea's of Galileo?
1.Father of modern science.

2.publishes stary messenger where experiments and math are mixed.
and vindicates(provide proof) copernicus' heliocentric theory.

3.condenmed but says I dont think the same god who have us sense doesn't want us to use it.
What are the central and main Idea's of Rene Descartes?
Founder of the cartesian method.

Publishes discourse method

develops principals based on math, not philosophy.

New rationalism - to doubt everything

The only thing that one cannot doubt is one's own existanc; "cogito, ergo sum." - "I think, therefore I am"

seperates mind and matter

He advocate the deductive method of reasoning, stating of self-evident first principles.

Mechanistic theory; The entire universe is a machine(execpt god and the rational soul)

Developed analytical geometry.
What are the main idea's of Isaac Newton?
Father of Enlightment.

Nature of light, laws of gravitation, and laws of motion.

Greatest work, mathematical principles of Natural philosophy.

made inductive and deductive methods for science

believed natural laws could be discovered by math

strong faith in god.
Main ideas of John Lock?
Father of modern empiricism; sensations and experiences are the foundation of all knowledge.

Wrote two treatises on gov't. "all men possess the god-given rights to ife, liberty, and property"

1. you gotta follow the low and you can revolt if you need to. power is divided.

natural law - common sense law!

wrote essay concerning human understanding.

Man begins as a blanc state (tabula rosa)

ideas come from experience

awarness is our ideas not the world

the "origins" of things are called archtypes.
What are the main idea's of voltiare?
Best writer in the englighment
Wrote 72 volumes
wrote the first world history
most famous work is candide
great research in math, physics, and chem.
position int he courst of loius XV (royal historiographer, gentalman to the bed chamber, and member of the french acadamy)

"it's forbidden to kill unless it's to the sound of trumpets"

"let us cultivate our garden" - use commonsense
Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
Man is good by nature but civiliztion has corrupted him.

Father of sensibility, must strive for awareness of the influence of landscape

education is a drawing out of what's already there

again's lock's theory of human potential

"man is born free but everywhere he's in chains"

Freedom is achieved through obedience ot the self-imposed law of reason.
What are the main ideas of adam smith?
Equality of freedom and privilege for everyman.
What are the main idea's of David Hume?
He conceived of philosophy as the inductive, experimental science of human nature. His first major work, A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–40), explains the origin of ideas, including the ideas of space, time, and causality, in sense experience; presents an elaborate account of the affective, or emotional, aspects of the mind and assigns a subordinate role to reason in this order (“Reason is, and ought only to be, the slave of the passions”); and describes moral goodness in terms of “feelings” of approval or disapproval that a person has when he considers human behaviour in the light of the agreeable or disagreeable consequences either to himself or to others. The Treatise was poorly received, and late in life Hume repudiated it as juvenile. He revised Book I of the Treatise as An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1758); a revision of Book III was published as An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751). His Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779), containing a refutation of the argument from design and a critique of the notion of miracles, was withheld from publication during his lifetime at the urging of friends. From his account of the origin of ideas Hume concluded that we have no knowledge of a “self” as the enduring subject of experience; nor do we have knowledge of any “necessary connection” between causally related events. Immanuel Kant, who developed his critical philosophy in direct reaction to Hume, said that Hume had awakened him from his “dogmatic slumbers.” In Britain, Hume's moral theory influenced Jeremy Bentham to adopt utilitarianism. With John Locke and George Berkeley, Hume is regarded as one of the great philosophers of empiricism.
Immanual Kant?
German Philosopher,

Primary influence on romantiscism

"the enlightment is man's emergence from his nonage(immaturity)." Immaturity is caused by the intelligence without another's guidance..."Dare to know!"
What are the main ideas of Denis Diderot?
French man of letters and philosopher.

Educated by Jesuits, Diderot later received degrees from the University of Paris. From 1745 to 1772 he served as chief editor of the 35-volume Encyclopédie, a principal work of the Enlightenment. He composed such influential works as Letter on the Deaf and Dumb (1751), which studies the function of language, and Thoughts on the Interpretation of Nature (1754), acclaimed as the method of philosophical inquiry of the 18th century. The first great art critic, he was especially admired posthumously for his Essay on Painting (written 1765). His novels include The Nun (written 1760) and Rameau's Nephew (finished 1774); he also wrote plays and theoretical works on drama. See also Jean Le Rond d'Alembert.
What are the main ideas of Baron Montesquieu?
Comparative study of three froms of government

Powers of government should be seperated an balanced


"law is reason in action"

first systamatic environmentalist

against slavery and cruel punishment
What are the idea's of George WF Hegel?
found a place for everything—logical, natural, human, and divine—in a dialectical scheme that repeatedly swung from thesis to antithesis and back again to a higher and richer synthesis. His panoramic system engaged philosophy in the consideration of all the problems of history and culture, none of which could any longer be deemed foreign to its competence. At the same time, it deprived all the implicated elements and problems of their autonomy, reducing them to symbolic manifestations of the one process, that of the Absolute Spirit's quest for and conquest of its own self. His influence has been as fertile in the critical reactions he precipitated as in his positive impact. His principal works are Phenomenology of Mind (1807), Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1817), and Philosophy of Right (1821). He is regarded as the last of the great philosophical system builders. See also Hegelianism.

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