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Psych #4


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Who did a subway car experiment?
Rodin and Piliavin

blind man or a drunk man on the subway car.
Who reported that Social Psychology is primarily concerned with the relations between people?
What is Group Conformity?
yeilding to the pressures of a group when there is no pressure to do so.
Who give us the definition of Social Psychology?
What were the two conclusions of the Lady in distress experiment?
1. Social comparison- comparing the appropriateness of ones behaviors with others
2. Diffusion of responsibility- not feeling personally responsible (pass the buck)
What is the definition of Social Psychology?
scientific study of the individual human in a social setting.
Who studied Blind obedience to authority and how?
teacher and student shock treatment
What did Piliavin and Rodin attribute helping to?
1. close proximity
2. closer the observer is to seeing the emergency the more they become aroused
3. more aroused more likely to help
4. more identifies with victim
Who performed the lady in distress experiment and what was it?
Latane, Darley and Rodin
lady falls off a ladder
Naive subject alone- 70%
NS with stooge who didn't care- 7%
NS with friend- 70%
NS with NS- 40%
What were the results of the subway car experiment?
same race helped drunks
reguardless of race blinds
Males more than females
What are the 4 componants to an emergency?
Involve danger
people not possess the skills to help
low rewards
rare emergencies
What are the 6 factors which influence attribution according to Weiner?
What additional two reasons did Cartwright and Zander come up with for why people join groups?
Need to affiliate (misery loves equally miserable company)
Division of responsibility/labor
Who studied quality of the observer and what did they find?
children described others similar to the way they described themselves.
Explain Newcombe's study
Newcombe studied women at Bennington college who grew up in conservative homes, and tested conservative. If they stayed at the liberal college, they became more liberal and twenty years later were still liberal.
What were the findings of Triplett?
Presence of others is socially facilitating....

Having someone there made the racers perform better than alone.
What is affective?
feelings about
like, dislike, pro, con
Who performed the first experiment in social psychology, and what was the experiment?
Triplett- a bicycle race using unpaced, paced, and competitive races.
What is the $1 or $25 favor and who studied it?
Festinger and Carlsmith
People asked to lie about a boring experiment would do it for $1 but had a harder time for $25
What does 6 things does Person Perception depend on?
qualities of the perciever
the primacy effect
the recency effect
the halo effect
central traits
autistic Hostility
Who named bystander apathy and why?
Lack of 28 crime witnessess to help Kitty Genoves
Who studied Autistic Hostillity and what is it?
cutting off or refraining from interacting with someone new based on negative information recieved.
Who studied Why people Join groups?
Shaw and Cartwright and Zander
Who reported on the Halo effect and what is it?
Berscheid, Dion, and Walster
When individual possess positive traits other positive traits are attached.
(Beautiful Woman)
What group process did Sherif observe?
Establish group name/identity
Establish group norms/rules
Identify group leadership
Who reported on the Primacy effect and what is it?
Initial information influences the observer's perceptions. (first impressions)
When a group refers to others as them and they it is called?
inter group (between groups)hostility
What are the 3 components of attitudes?
What is cognitive dissonance?
state of discomfort which occurs when attutudes or attitudes and behaviors are in conflict.
Who discovered that the presence of others is only socially facilitating if it is a well learned task?
What does a deviant do to group conformity?
if the deviant verbalizes his or her opinions the likelihood of conformity decreases.
What are the Three I's and their definitions?
Interaction- face to face encounter
Inter-dependence- how we relate to each other (as a spouse, parent, child etc.)
Influence- change in behavior
Who discovered the Stability of Attitudes?
studied women at Bennington College
What is luck?
a relatively enduring , consistant way of : thinking about, feelings about, likelihood of behaving toward a stimulus.
What is a small group?
at least 2 individuals interacting so that influence occurs.
If Deception is used the researcher must....
Why did Crutchfield disagree with Asch and what did he do?
Crutchfield believed it was because the subjects heard the answers....He used cubicles and computers.
Who reported on central traits and what did they discover?
some traits are weighed more heavily than others.
Sherif discovered when inter group tension is high you must....
introduce a superordinate (for each group to benefit, they must work together) goal inter-group hostility diminishes.
What are the Ethical issues in Social Psychology?
The use of human subjects
use of deception
What is conative?
likelihood of behaving
How you might behave, prediction
What is cognitive?
thinking about (how you think about something)
gossip, facts, rumors, truths, ideas
What were the seven reasons shaw gives for why people join groups?
Like the group goals
like the group activities
Interpersonal attractions (friends)
Similar attitudes, values, ideas
Like Membership per se
Means to other ends
Who Identified factors that influence attribution?
Who named and what is "group think?"
Highly cohesive group fails to gather diverse perspectives

(they all think alike)
What did Tedeski say was the focus of Social Psychology?
3 I's
When a group refers to themselves as we and us it is called
Intra-group cohesion (within group)
Who reported on the Regency Effect and what is it?
when person is known to observer it is the atypical and most recent information that is remembered.
Who did the Prison Experiment?
If human subjects are used the researcher must.....
ascertain that no harm occurs
What were the results of the prison investigation?
Role assumption occured
Guards used frequent punishment
Deindividualtization occured (guards)
Learned Helplessness (prisoners)
Prisoners developed Psychosomatic symptoms (crying, rashes)
What is person perception?
How the observer perceives others
Who performed the most famous group cohesion investigation and what was it?
The Robbers Cave Investigation

Eagles and Rattlers.....
What is Attribution?
how the individual ascribes qualities or traits to others as well as themself.
What is a reference group?
is made up significant others, establish social norms, provide social identity, establish a means for social comparison
Who studied the case of Minnie Mae, what did the case reveal?
Loflin and Starke
predispositional factors and environmental factors influence attitude
What was the case that studied cognitive dissonance and who did it?
Festinger, Riecken, Schachter
Ms. Keech's group believed the world was coming to an end. the world didn't end so there was dissonance, She changed her story in order to relieve the dissonance.
Why did Asch disagree with Serif and what did he do?
Said Sherif's stimulus was ambiguous
Placed his subject in brightly lit room
What is group cohesion?
The attractiveness to sticking with the group

(cohesion is glue or bonding)
Who investigated helping behavior?
Latane, Darley, and Rodin
What was Sherif's experiment in group conformity?
asked a subject in a darkened room to describe the direction of a pen light
Who were the three psychologists who studied and disagreed with each other about Group Conformity?
Asch disagreed with Sherif
Crutchfield disagreed with Asch
What did it mean when subjects develop Psychosomatic symptoms?
Ethics violation. Must not do any harm!

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