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European History Chapter 3, Section 2


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Organization set up by Spain to pass laws for the colonies

Council of the Indies

Potosi silver you seek...
Spanish priest who condemned the evils of the encomienda system and sought to end abuse to natives

Bartolome de las Casas

Brother Bart
A series of laws forbidding the enslavement of Native Americans
New Laws of the Indies
A nun who devoted herself to scholarship; she became one of the greatest poets of the Spanish language

Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

Boy, Juana sure is "Sor" that she wasn't admitted to the University of Mexico!
Representative who rules in the name of the king
Large estate run by an owner or overseer
Worker forced into labor for a landlord to pay off a debt


Peon = Spanish for "pawn"
Right granted to conquistadors to demand tribute or payment from Native Americans in exchange for protection


Don't mess with the family...
A person born in Spain; the highest class of colonial society
American-born descendent of Spanish settlers

Person of Native American and European descent
Person of African and European descent
A pirate who operated with the approval of a European government


A pirate who gave a "private-ear" to one European government
Describe how Spain controlled its American empire.
Spain divided the colonies into five provinces, appointing viceroys to rule over each province. They also forcibly imposed European culture on the Native Americans. Finally, they held strict economic trade agreements that forced the colonists to depend on them for income.
How did the mix of peoples in Spanish America result in a new social structure?
Intermarriages within different races and blending of religion and cultural practice resulted in this new social structure.
Give three examples of cultural blending in Spain's American empire.
Settlers learned how to build in a Native American way; Native American art influenced the settlers; settlers introduced new animals; many others...
How did other European nations challenge Spanish power in the Americas?
Smugglers traded illegally with Spanish colonists; pirates preyed on Spanish ships
In what ways were the Spanish and Portuguese empires similar? Different?
The two nations' empires were similar in that they established plantations and used Native Americans and Africans as forced labor; their main difference was in the products they exploited: the Spanish lands offered an abundance of silver and gold, whereas the Portuguese lands on the coast contained primarily brazilwood, used to produce a precious dye.
How might the Spanish have solved the problem of finding a dependable labor supply without resorting to the use of slavery?
By improving conditions in the mines to prevent large numbers of workers from dying; by sharing profits from the products with the natives, giving them incentive to work for pay; etc.

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