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Ancient Etruscan Test

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Augustus of Primaporta
made early 4th Century AD. Commissioned by his wife, Livia. Drapery reminiscent of Grecian Aphrodite of Knidos. Breaks teh plane like Apoxymenos. Contrapposto. Embodiment of proportional perfection like Doryphorous. Made to look as if he's orating to a crowd, showing he's smart and educated. His posture shows his speech was at an end. Stick represents power. Made of marble. Wearing "cuirass" which is a piece of armor protecting one's chest and it shows the Gods conferring power unto Augustus. "Leg baby" represents cupid and gives Augustus a god-like quality and suggests he was a descendant of Venus and also being led by the Gods for love and not for war. Fabric was simply meant to show skill of artist. Very idealized.
Constantine the Great
Built ca. 325 AD. commissioned by emperor Constantine. 30 foot tall veristic sculpture placed in the niche that Constantine added to the basilica of constantine and Maxentious. Stands for Roman justice. Allows the people to believe that Constantine was there even though he was ruling from afar.
Ara Pacis
aka Altar of Peace. Built ca. 13 - 9 BCE Commissioned by Augustus for peace. Relief sculpture portrays Romans and Augustus' love for them. Touching portrayal of children clinging to parent. Showing elements of real Roman people. Emphasizes family. A different panel shows Augustus' promise of food. Seres is Goddess of the harvest (feeding children).
Arch of Titus
commissioned by Emperor Titus in 81AD. Triumphal arch. Commemorates victory in Jerusalem and was made from spoils of temple at jerusalem. Made so everyone could permanently see awesomeness of Titus. Enscribed with relief sculpture and shows his victory while people carry out spoils *menorah*. celebrates victory of emperor in public way, center of triumphal procession, meant to establish continuity with other triumphs by previous emperors. Symbolic destination = TRIUMPH
The Pantheon
built ca. 118 - 128 AD. Built by emperor Hadrian. Portico is Greek. Perception used to be one would look up an would be 10 FT lower. There was a wall hiding the dome so there was an element of surprise when one walked in . Pagan temple because it worshipped multiple gods. Agrippa broke ground here. Circle represented universal perfection so it was a major incorporation in the building's overall design. Building is a metaphor for the universe. Oculus on top. A church of sorts.
Tomb of Reliefs
built ca. 3rd Century BC. Burial chamber for Cerveteri. Believed to be in necropolis, or city of the dead.
Villa of Mysteries
room, perhaps depicting a succession of events that culmintein the acceptance of an initiate into the cult. Could be neverending or just a narrative.
A Young Flavian Woman
ca. 90 AD. An idealized portrait of a young woman. Example of portraiture. Her hair will DESTROY YOU. Exemplifies perfect Roman ideal. Everything molded to perfection like smooth skin and chiseled features, adheres to canon of perfection, and is made to look young.
Colosseum
aka Flavian amphitheater. Began being built under Bespasian in 70 CE and was completed under titus, who dedicated it in 80 CE. Called the flavian amphitheater because emperors working on it wereancestors of flavian tribe/ family. Wall went all around with big canvas canopy covering opening thus making it a domed theater. When built, emperor called for 1 month holiday and killed many people and animals in the games. Symbol that power and wealth. forefront of art, architecture, technology and all things culture. uses domes (barrel vaults). Barrell vaults circulating performance area are called the groin vault. Coloseum also had graduated columns that were engaged and in various orders. Made of brick and concrete.
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine
built ca. 306 to 313 AD. Built originally by Maxentius, but further edited after he was overthrew by Constantine. It was a civil building for legal processions to be carried out, such as transactions, civil mergers, public forum. If emperor had case against the people it was held at the Basilica. Big vaulted center of building called the nave. Narthes was the small area before properly entering the building. Apse was where an altar would be in a church. The way the building is designed is in a legal tone.
Apollo of Veii
ca. 505 BC. Comparable to Kouros statues with its hair, drapery of cloth, and the archaic smile, but it shows more movement. Breaks the plane. Believed to have once been part of sculptural group and telling a narrative. Carries a lyre (Apollo's best attribute)
The Roman Temple Perhaps Dedicated to Portunus
urban temple. Thought to be dedicated to Portunus, the god of harbors and ports. Late second century. Engaged columns.
Porta Augusta
built in Perugia, Italy. ca. 2nd BC. Example of Etruscan arch. Etruscan.
Rome
name of city, name of republic, and name of an empire. Republic formed in 509 BC and lasted until early 5th Century AD when it falls. Vatican strived to be like the Roman empire.
Reconstruction of an Etruscan Temple
No definitive date, based off of the book by Vitruvius who made his writings based on what he knew to be true and cannot be truly proved by art historians. Wrote books in 4th Century AD. Reconstruction has engaged columns, which suggests the temple was in close proximity to other buildings, thus being in a city-like atmosphere. Roof probably made of wood and mud.
Sarcophagus from Cerveteri
ca. 520 BC. put in tomb of relief. Put in pose to suggest them as living. Etruscans viewed afterlife as something like the present. Dead were in the open in a space where the living would frequently be.
Middle-Aged Flavian Woman
Made ca. late first century AD. Veristic style that emphasized hereditary traits in the family from which the subject hails. Honest to the physical features, but emphasizes hereditary physical traits.

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