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Beginning of History


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New Stone Age. Period that is associated with the origins of agriculture.
Iron Age
Period after the 2nd Millennium when soceities began to use this metal instead of bronze. This new AGE was developed as a result of an abundance of this metal. It is also used to create weapons and tools.
Jaguar Symbol
This symbol was used in sculpture, pottery, and textiles similar to the Olmec Symbols. This symbol of an animalistic man was alarge religious symbol.
Belief in the existance of a single divine entity. Opposite of Polytheism.
An elite who could read and write, Highly prized for lieracy, and used to keep records of annual produce and later to record eventsof history.
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
Largest of cities of the Indus River Valley civilization. Had large scale construction, evidence of rural planning. Also known as a farming center.
Hunter/ gatherers in the earliest periods of time, later settle down and become agriculturists.
Most important city in southern Mesopotamia in the 2nd Millennium. Also later remembered for it's gardens atop of buildings, and as being one of the wonders of the world.
Murek Snail
A type of snail that produce a highly valued purple dye during the period of the Phoinikes.
A writing system from Egypt that contains symbols in it. Is the same writing system used today.
Capital city of Egypt andhome to the ruling dynasties during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Monarchs were buried across the River in the Valley of Kings.
Fortified palace complex in southern Greece. Controlled late Bronze Age Kingdom. Base of King Agamemnon who commanded the Greeks as they besieged Troy in Homer's poems.
Prosperous civilization located on the Aegean Island of Crete in the 2nd millenium. Executed powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks.
A self governing urban center. Controlled agricultural cultural territories as well.
The opening up of country boarders for trade and commerce. Also allows for communities and religions to interact with each other as they develop internation relations.
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
A multi-story, mud-brick, pyramid shaped tower approached by ramps and stairs. It is associated with religion in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but it's function is unknown.
The era about 9000 BCE, a time when Global Warming ended the last Ice Age.
A family of related languages spoken across parts Asia and Northern Africa. Most wide spread of this language is Arabic.

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