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Survey of Western Art: Exam 4


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characterized by renewed enthusiasm for subjects and motifs from classical antiquity; this style is characterized by clarity, balance, and restraint. 
emotions, drama/imagination, and color play the dominant roles in this style (“the heart rules the head”).
a movement in the 19th C. (especially in France) where artists represented subject matter from everyday life (which had previously been considered an inap
an annual juried art exhibition of painting and sculpture in France, dating back from the early 17th c. through the 19th c. and characterized b
Salon des Refuses
an alternative Salon of rejected artworks (promoted by Napoleon III); it is often said to herald the beginning of modern art.
19th c. French movement that relied heavily on color and the ever-changing effects of light to capture a given moment in time; sought to create the illusi
Local color
the actual color of an object, which “appears” to change when the object is seen under different light and atmospheric conditions.
a fleeting moment in time (e.g. involving weather conditions or candid, unguarded moments.)  This concept arises from the rapidly changing, imperma
separate patches of color that are visible and often look somewhat sloppy.

a movement whose followers rejected the importance given to Naturalism and the depiction of the momentary effects in Impressionism; these artists never rejected t

Divisionism/ a technique based on the scientific juxtaposition of pure dabs of color; the brain blends these colors together automatically in the involuntary process of optical m

thick, heavy application of paint, where the strokes of the brush or palette knife are very pronounced, leaving the paint to stand up in relief.



a small-scale model for a sculpture.

Example: Burghers of Calais by Rodin 


an early 20th c. art movement where color became the element most responsible for conveying meaning and pictorial coherence.  Charact

“Fallacy of intention”
artists often achieve things they do not intend and do not always succeed in communicating things they do; what artists say about their works may not be the same thi

early 20th c. art movement that rejected naturalistic depictions, preferring compostitions of often geometric shapes and forms “abstracted”

The fourth dimension
an idea of time inspired partly by the desire to express the space-time qualities of reality newly revealed by scientists like Einstein.
Prairie Style
architectural style characterized by long, sweeping ground lines, unconfined by abrupt limits of the wall (which seemed to reach out towards and express the great fl
a horizontal projection supported by a downward force behind a fulcrum.  It is without external embracing and therefore appears to be self-supporti
movement that took an “antirational” stance reflecting cynicism engendered by World War I in improvised, sarcastic expressions of intuition and irrationa

Readymades/found objects

mass-produced objects selected by the artists and sometimes “rectified,”modified, or combined with another object; such objects are taken out of their or
Organic sculpture
sculpture that emphasizes through its form the natural or organic (e.g. soft, curved ovoid shapes).

Abstract art/Abstraction

art that desires to represent the idea, the essence, of a thing—to separate that from the exact appearance of the object in the real world. 
Truth to materials
respect for the medium –using the medium’s properties to their full potential (e.g. polished, shiny, bronze)
Organic formalism
a simplified, abstract art inspired by living organisms (and/or organs of the body)
a movement in the 20th c. that sought to examine the reality behind appearances, especially in a psychological sense, drawing heavily on theories involvin
to place together objects that don’t ordinarily belong side by side.

Nonobjective/nonrepresentational art

art that has no discernible reference to the external appearance of the physical world; or art without recognizable subject matter (all identifiable subject matter h
a movement that is an extension of Cubism, in which the action of color and forms are reduced to utter simplicity by strict adherence to simple geometric shapes.
Documentary photography
photography that captures a reflection of reality, but that also must be read through the lens of cultural conditioning.
Abstract expressionism
a movement characterized by distortion, emotion, spontaneity, energy, and visible (often aggressive) brushwork.
Action painting
principle method in American Abstract Expressionism where painting is revealed through the brush gesture and the signature left by the fall and touch of the paint.
governed by unconscious free association, the artist works with uncontrolled movements of the hand.
Pop Art
Short for popular; challenges the tradition of fine arts by insisting that common culture and mass media are legitimate inspirations; deals with the expendable objec
Photo silk-screen
a method of producing a stencil in which a photograph is imposed upon a screen of silk; ink is then pulled across the stencil and forced onto the printing surface.
Activist art
art that has the power to change people and society
Feminist art
art concerned with women and women’s issues
came into vogue in the 1970’s; sometimes refers to outdoor sculptural ensembles, but usually characterizes indoor, site-specific painting, sculpture, or mixed

Earth/environmental/site art

takes art outside the museum and involves the community, raising the population’s awareness of their surroundings
Minimal art
movement that rejected space, texture, subject matter, and atmosphere, relying instead on simple, geometric form, flat color, and the power of the artwork’s pr