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SS Chapter 6


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according to the legend, who was rome founded by?
romulus and remus
what 3 groups inhabited the region from 1000 to 500 bc
latins greeks and etruscans
who were the first romans
what was their job
farmers and shepherds
how did the greeks come to roe?
settlers established colonies and taught romans to grow grapes and olives
where were etruscans native to?
northern italy
what were their accomplishments for rome?
skilled metalworkers and enginers
had writing and architechture-adopted by romans
what did the romans get from the greeks
took their gods and gave them different names
what did romans take from etuscansq
rituals they believed helped them win favor of the gods
who became king around 600 bc
an etruscan
who was the last king of rome?
Tarquin the Proud
what kind of ruler was he?
what happened to him?
driven from power by aristrocrats
what kind of gov't did the romans establish?
form of gov't in which power rests w. citizens who have the right to vote to select their leaders
mr. scotts thing for republic
gov't w/o hereditary leaders
what does the latin phrase where repubilic came from mean?
public affairs
who was allowed to vote in the roman republic?
free-born male citizens
what 2 groups struggled for power in early republic
patricians and plebeians
aristocratic landowners who geld most of the power
inherited their power and social status
common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population
could plebians vote?
yes but they were usualy barred by law from holding important gov't possitions
what did senate allow the plebians to do?
form their own assembly and elect representatives
representatives elected by plebians when teh senate allowed them to elect representatives and form their own assembly
what did tribunes do for plebians
protected the rights of the plebians from unfair acts of patrician officials
twelve tables
written laws of rome
-established the idea that all free citizens, patricians, and plebeians had a right to the protection of the law
part of gov't like monarchy
two officials in Rome in place of a king
-commanded army and directed gov't
-had a one-year term and could not be elected again for 10 yrs
-one consul alwayts could overrule the other's decision
aritocratic part of roman gov't
had legislative and administrative functions
300 members from upper class
democratic part
all citizen soldiers were members of centuriate assembly
tribal assembly
organized by pleveians
elected tribuness and made laws for republic
what did the republic do in times of crisis
appoint a dictator
leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army
how did this dictatorship work?
power only lasted for 6 months
were chosen by consuls and then elected by the senate
who was required to serve in the army
all citizens who owned land
large military units that roman soldiers were organized into
smaller groups which legions were divided up into
how was italian peninsula divided up?
rome had different laws and treatment for different parts
who did rome fight w/ for control over mediterranean
Punic Wars
war with carthage
first punic war
for control of sicily and western mediterranean
who won?
second punic war
hannibal warnted to avenage first defeat
carthaginian general second punic war
where was his greatest victory?
roman general-military leader to match hannibals boldness
-deviced plan to attack carthage
who won 2nd punic war?
rome-defeated carthage
third punic war
romans were angered by carthage's return to prospertity and rememberd devestation it caused italy
-set city on fire and sold inhabitants to slavery
what did rome get for winning the punic wars?
mediterranean, macedonia, greece, and parts of anatolia
in the early roman republic, this was someone whose power was absolute but whose time in office was limited to a six-month period
this is one of the two officials who shared the powers of ruling the republic and whose time in office was limited to one year
these are the people who first settled the land on the bend of the tiber river that was to become rome
these people gave the romans their alphaet and their knowledge or architechture, including the arch
these were the wealthy, artistocratic landowners who geld most of the power in the early republic
this person led a force of more than 50,000 soldiers and 60 elephants across the alps to invade italy
the romans based their gods on the gods of these people
this was a military division of the roman army
this was someone eleected to represent the lower class of roman citizens
this was someone chosen to represent the upper class of roman citizens
this person was a daring roman general during the second punic war
huge estates where rich landowners lived
what was the problem for returning soldiers after punic war?
they became homeless and jobless
what platned seeds for republics collapse
class tensions
what did brothers tibenus andgavs do to help romes poor?
-limited size of estates and gave land for poor
what followed their deaths?
period of civil war
how did generals get people to fight?
promised poor land
why was this a problem
they replaced soldiers whose loyalty had been to the republic and not to generals
julius caesar
brought order to rome
dominated as triumvirate
was appointed dictator for life
governed as absolute ruler and made reforms
was assasinated by a number of important senators
julius' reforms
granted citizenship to many
expanded senate
created jobs for poor
started colonies where landless could own land
increased pay for soldiers
a group of 3 rulers
what was the first triumvirate that ruled rome for 10 yrs?
caesar, crassus, and pompey
what happened after casears death?
civil war broke out and destroyed republic
how did the second trumvirate end?
in jealousy and violence
who was in it?
marc anthony, octavian, and lepidus
restored some of the republic when he deffeated anthony
pax romana
period of peace and prosperity
peace reigned for 207 years
where did the pax romana start and end?
start=augustus' reign
end=marcus aurelius' reign
what was the most important industry?
how did augustus glorify rome?
w/ buildings
set up civil service
who was the last of the 5 gooood emperors?
five goos wmpweoea
temporarily solved succession problem
whos death marked the beginning of the empires decline and the end of the pax romana
marcus aurelius
what was the heart of the roman society?
who ruled the household
eldest man
how were roman women treated?
ran household-given respect
almost social equal of a man
could own property and testify in court
ould not vote
age of adult?
imporatnt ot economy
professional fighters who fought to death in public contests
what were roman gods like?
had humanlike forms and individual personalities
after serving consul for a year, this person led his troops in conquering gaul.
julius caesar
his great popularity was a source of concern to ___, who managed to have him ordered back to rome
the armies of what two general foguth in varius parts of the world for power?
pompey and casar
octavian defeated the comvbined armies of
marc antony and cleopatra
Roman Jer reuler who angered many jews
what did the jeews do?
they revolted but rome finally took control of jewish kingdom and made it the province of judea
romans gave control of religious matter and local affairs to this jewish court
wanted to rid their homeland of romans
what did another group believe?
that messiah, savior would come and restore kingdom of jews
what jewish ideas did jesus teach?
1. monotheism 2. ten commandments 3. important of relationshp with god 4. eternal kingdom after death
12 special disciples
jesus' pupils
first 4 books of the new testament
jesus' disciples who are thought to have written some of teh gospels
jesus' death
grew popular
priests said teachings were contempt of god
roman governor arrested jesus and sentenced him to be crucified
first aposotle
spread teachings of jjesus
first pope=first bishop of Rome
an apostle who had an emormous influence of christianity's development
at first was an enemy of christianity
reportedly had a vision of christ
spent the rest of his life spreading and interpreting chrsts teachings
influential letters to groups of believers
what happenened next?
band of zealots rebelled against rome
what happened in ad 70
romans destroy temple in jerusalem and jews revbel
the dispersal of jews from their homeland
were driven from their gomeland into exile
what did romans do to christains?
christians were exiled, imprisoned, or executed
people willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of a belief or sause
why did christianity grow?
1. embraced all people
2. gave hope to powerless
3. appealed to those who were repelled by extravagances of imperial rome
4. offered personal relationship w/ loving god
5. promised eternal life after death
early christian church
priests led small groups of christians
a priest that supervised several local churches
eventually, every major city had its own bishop
first bishop
father of christian church
roman emperor who fought 3 rivals for his title
-was victorious in battle and gave credit to christian god
annnounced end of prosecution of christians
declared chistianity religion approved by empire
belief that appeared to contradict basic teachings
new testament
contained 4 gospels, epistles of paul, others
official standard belief
nicene creed
written by constantine-defined basic beliefs of church
Fathers of church
several early writers and scholars
ex. of father
wrote famous book THE CITY OF GOD when rome was plundered
the bisop of ___ was considered the pope
what made the economy decline?
1. frequent wars=costly
2. outside people disrupted trade
3. no expansion=nno new metal
4. inflation
5. farlmand overworked and destroyed by warfare-food shortages
foreign soldiers who fought for $ -less $ than romans
felt no loyalty
how was military affected
germanic tribes overwhelmed roman legions
perians captured emperor valerian
how were politics affected?
citizens lost patriotism
local officials usually lost money in office
284 new emperor
doubled size of army
absolute ruler
severly limited personal freedoms
drafted prisoners of war
attempted to control inflation
passed decrees to persecute christians
divided empire
empire divisions
1. Greek-speaking east
greece, anatolia, syria, egypt
2. latin-speaking west
italy, gaul, britannia, spain
general maximian
co-ruler of diocletian who controlled west while D controlled east
which half was wwealthier and why?
east-had ciities and trade center
who gained control of the western empire?
drastic drop in value of money coupled with a rise in prices
new name of the city of byzantium, the new capital of rome--2nd capital
why decline of western roman empire
internal problems, separation from wealthier east, and invasion
who drove the last roman emperor from throne
mongol nomads from central asia
invaded-forced other groups in roman empire
put rome under siege
king of visigoths
chieftan who united huns and terrorized empire
negotiated a withdrawal w/ pope leo I bc they were weakened
last roman emperor
Romulus Augustulus-sent into exile by german general
eastern half name
byzantine empire
what happened to eastern half?
flourished-preserved greek and roman culture but fell to ottoman turks in 1453
what did romans get from greeks
art, architechture, literacture and philosophy
who conqquered who
romans conquered greeeks and learned greek langauge
Greco-roman culture
mix of greek, hellenistic, and roman culture
also called calssical civilzation
what art did romans learn from greeks
when was the greatst artisitc achievement
during reign of augustus
images project from flat background
romans skilled in mosaics-pictures of designs made by setting small pieces of stone, glass, or tile onto a surface
large bright mural owned by most wealthy romans
painting directly on wall
town where best ex. of roman painting are found
volano (mt. vesuvius) erupted and preserved art there
philosophy of greek teacher zeno
poet who spent 10 years writing most famous work of latin literature, THE ANEID, epic of legendary aeneas
who did he model it afeter
greek epics of homer
wrote light witty poetry for enjoyment and history
wrote muth of rome-more than true history
roman historian who presented the facts accurately and wrote ANNALS and HISTORIES, the good and bad of imperial rome
official language of rome and roman catholic church
romance languages
commance roman heritage, developed by latin
french, spanish, portuguese, italian, and romanian
arch, dome, concrete
designed by roman enineers to bring water into cities and towns
law system
believed laws should be equl and far to all
stadards of justice influenced by teachings of stoic
imporatnt principles in roman law
1. all people have equal ttreatment under law
2. people are not innocent until proven guilt
3. proof rests w/ accuser rather than accused
4. person puunished for action, not thoughts
5. unreasonable or unfair law could be set aside

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