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Our capacity to register, store and recover info over time
All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering info
Info Processing Model
Information is inputted, it is first encoded, stored, and then retrieved
Filter Theory
Unimportant info is dropped and relevant info is encoded
Levels of Processing Model
How long/well we remember info depends on how deeply we process the info when it is encoded
Shallow Processing
Structural encoding of superficial sensory info
Semantic Coding
Emphasizes meaning of verbal input
Deep Processing
Attaching meaning to info and creating associations of elaboration
Creating associations between the new memory and the old
Self-referent Encoding
To relate new info to oneself
Sensory Memory
Info stored long enough just to be perceived
Iconic Memory
Represents visual stimulus that lasts for less than a second
Echoic Memory
Lasts about 4 sec. Just long enough to hear a flow of info
Selective Attention
Focusing of awareness on a specific stimulus in sensory memory
Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of info about space, time, and frequency
Parallel Processing
A natural mode of info processing that involves several info streams simultaneously
Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires our attention and conscious effort
Short-term memory
STM; can hold a limited amount of info for about 30 sec. Unless processed further
Grouping info into meaningful units
Working Memory Model
Phonological loop briefly stores info about lang. Sounds with an acoustic code from sensory memory and rehearsal func.
Long-Term Memory
Relatively permanent and practically unlimited capacity memory system
Explicit Memory
AKA declarative memory; Facts and experiences we consciously know
Semantic Memory
Facts and general knowledge
Episodic Memory
Personally experienced events
Implicit Memory
AKA nondeclarative memory; Skills and procedures to do things
Procedural Memory
Motor/cognitive skills, classical/operant conditioning effects
Systems in which concepts are arranged from more general to more specific
Mental representations of related things
Typical examples of the concept
Semantic Networks
Irregular and distorted systems than strict hierarchies
Preexisting mental frameworks
Schema for an event
Connectionism Theory
Memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons
Long-Term Potentiation
AKA LTP; Strengthening of neural connections at synapses
Flashbulb Memory
A vivid memory of an emotionally arousing event
Involves the encoding sensory memory into short-term memory
Involved in explicit long-term memory
Anterograde Amnesia
The inability to put new info into explicit memory
Retrograde Amnesia
Involves memory loss for a segment of the past, usually around the time of an accident
Involved in implicit memory of skills
Process of getting info out of memory storage
Identification of learned items when they are presented
Retrieval of previously learned info
Retrieval of memories that can be distorted by adding, dropping, or changing details to fit a schema
Serial Position effect
Remembering first stuff, last stuff, forgetting middle stuff
Retrieval Cues
Reminders associated with info we are trying to get out of memory
Activating specific associations in memory either consciously or unconsciously
Distributed Practice
Spreading out the memorization of info or the learning of skills over time
Massed Practice
Cramming the memorization of info or learning skills into one session
Mnemonic Devices
Memory tricks when encoding info
Method of Loci
Using association of words on a list with visualization of places on a familiar path
Peg word mnemonic
Memorizing a scheme
Context-dependent memory
Recalling info in the same environment it was encoded in
Mood Congruence
Remember happy things when happy, remember bad things when unhappy
Things we learn in one internal state are more easily recalled when in the same state again
Measure of retention of memory that assess the time saved compared to learning the first time
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Knowing something, but not being able to pull it out of memory
Learning similar items may prevent the retrieval of others
Proactive Interference
Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info

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