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Psych 346, exam 1


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Spacing doesn't help with
Perceptual categorization (grouping things based on look)
the ability to judge how well you have learned
Seven IES recommendations
spacing, concrete and abstract, visual and auditory, examples and problems, deep processing, quizzing and help with knowledge assessment, prequestions
Procedural Memory
skill learning
Semantic Memory
knowledge for facts
Episodic Memory
knowledge for events
Four study types for double dissociations
Procedural, developmental, pharmacological, brain damage
Declarative Memory dependent on
Frontal, Medial temporal lobes, also cerebellum
Non-declarative memory dependent on
Occipital lobe - visual priming (R), midbrain - procedural
Iconic memory
What you just saw briefly, flashbulb
Short-term memory
What you just saw in order
Working memory
What you just saw, manipulated (alphabetized)
Autobiographical memory
Memory about yourself
Prospective memory
Memory for the future (need to change tires)
Perceptual representation system, priming
The modal model
Info into short term, through repetition, into long term, wrong
dont know where information came from, not aware of it (procedural, priming)
dont know where information came from, but know that you have it (semantic)
Know what happened to me (autobiographical)
Declarative vs nondeclarative
separated by conscious use of memory
Long-term potentiation
change in downstream response later due to strong input earlier on (= long-term sensitization
makes testing difficult, can be influenced by multiple factors
important in emotional memory
Temporal lobe
stores knowledge
Parietal lobe
directs attention
Frontal lobe
involved in recall
Verbal information processed more on _ side
Nonverbal information processed more on _ side
+ can make it specific to a neurotransmitter, - slow, uses radiation
+ shows bloodflow in brain using iron to show where oxygenated blood is, - still a delay of seconds
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Can stimulate or disrupt a brain area (temporarily)
Evoked response potential + good temporal resolution - poor spatial resolution
Two factors and what they predict (flashbulb/event)
Media coverage and ensuing conversation predict flashbulb confidence and event memory accuracy
Six canonical features of flashbulb memories
Where you were, who told you, what you were doing, what you did immediately afterward, how you felt, how others felt
What is wrong with the modal model
levels of processing - there is a difference in how information is processed, deeper meaning gets greater retention - info can go straight into long-term memory
Brown-Peterson task
String of letters or words followed by sum, shows serial positioning curve, proactive interference
Proactive interference
In Brown-Peterson task, repeating categories causes confusion, bad performance
Serial position curve
Curve from when recalling a list, shows priamcy and recency - often doesnt show up until 5th or 6th trial because subject doesnt know how to do it
Nelson Cowan / attention
we can only pay attention to four blocks (visual), 7 numbers (on average)
Matching experiment showed
that amnesiacs had damaged relational memory, not long-term memory
3 components of working memory
Phonological loop, visuospatial scratchpad, central executive
Phonological loop
about 2 seconds, vulnerable to articulatory suppression
Phonological loop used in (2,1)
counting, vocabulary learning, not in reading
Visuospatial scratchpad
tested by block F task interference found when pointing to answer, shows it is partially spatial (none for saying), bad details for visual (imagining blueberries, shapes in star of David)
Episodic buffer
Baddely added this to his model to account for long-term memory needed in short-term (understanding language)
Fluid/crystallized memory
fluid memory is strictly short-term, crystallized is long-term important in short-term
faces, places
fusiform face area parahippocampal place area
More activity in LTM trials
anterior PFC and hippocampus
Brodman's areas
Areas of the brain separated by different cell structure
verbal storage (brain area)
Brain area in spatial storage
right DLPFC
spatial info more dorsal than object info, visual left, spatial right
Anterior cingulate
involved in inhibition, response conflict - important in central executive
Central executive important predictor in (6)
Reading comprehension, mathematical ability, reasoning, SAT/GRE scores, disorders, fluid intelligence
Patient RE (4)
no phonological loop, thinks lemon rhymes with demon, difficulty repeating exactly what was said, better than controls under articulatory suppression
Conflict types, brain areas associated
response conflict - anterior cingulate familiarity conflict - left interior frontal gyrus
Executive function brain area
more frontal, more long term is more frontal
Perceptual function brain area
more back, longer-term is more back

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