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chapterr 8


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Serial position effect
people often remember the last and first items better than the middle items when learning a list
Mnemonic devices
memory aids which use imagery (e.g., Method of Loci, “King Henry Died Monday…”)
Implicit Memory (procedural memory)
retention without conscious recollection (skills, preferences, and dispositions).
Iconic Memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photographic or picture-image memory lasting less than a second
Echoic Memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
Explicit Memory (declarative memory)
the memory of facts or experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”
– brain structure vital in gradual processing of our explicit memories into long-term memory. Implicit memories are processed by the cerebellum.
memory in which the person must retrieve info. Learned earlier (e.g., fill-in-the-blank test, sketch of suspect)
person needs only identify items previously learned (e.g., multiple-choice test, pick suspect out of line up)
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when relearning previously learned information
– identifying one of the strands that leads to a specific memory
Mood congruent
we tend to remember memories that are associated with a particular mood (e.g., having someone break up with you brings back memories of other bad things that have happened)
Proactive interference
Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into a memory.
Source amnesia
– failing to remember the source of an event. (e.g., remembering someone’s face but having no idea where you met them)

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