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zTest #3 Chapter 9


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Racial groups are ______________ defined, based on selected ________________ characteristics.
A socially defined group distinguished by selected inherited physical characteristics.
Ethnic groups are identified by
it national origin or distinctive cultural patterns, such as religion, language, or region of the country.
Minority groups are groups that
are subordinate to the dominant group in terms of the distribution of social power; such groups are defined by some physical or cultural characteristics and are usually but not always smaller than the dominant groups.
Prejudice is a(n)
a preconceived attitude or judgement either good or bade, about another group;prejudices usually involve negative stereotypes.
Exploitation refers to
the economic theory that argues that prejudice is used to stigmatize a group as inferior, to put its members in a subordinate position, and to justify their exploitation.
Someone having an authoritarian personality refers
to the theory that some people are more inclined to prejudice than others, due to differences in personality
Stereotypes are
widely held and oversimplified beliefs about the character and behavior of all members of a group that seldom correspond to the facts.
Prejudice is reduced when people can meet in ________________ circumstances.
equal status
Discrimination is a(n)
is an overt behavior or action aimed at the categorial exclusion of members of specific groups from certain rights, opportunities and/or privileges.
Institutional discrimination is
the continuing exclusion or oppression of a group as a result of criteria established by an institution.
Racism is
the belief that one racial group of category is inherently superior to others. It includes prejudices and discriminatory behaviors based on this belief.
Institutional racism occurs when
racist ideas and practices are embodied in folkways, mores, or legal structures of various institutions.
The practice of systematically destroying a whole race is called ___________________.
Mass expulsion of a race was used by the United States government on
Native Americans "the trail of tears"
If a society is ethnically stratified, all except which of the following elements are present?
1. Ethnocentrism - the tendency to assume that one's culture and way of life are superior to all others.
2. Competition for resources.
3. Inequalities in power.
The split labor market causes fears about
displacement. (reducing labor costs by replacing higher paid employees with cheaper labor)
Displacement in a split labor market refers to displacing
higher paid employees with cheaper labor.
A radical approach to changing the split labor market would be to
radicalism - in which labor groups join together in a coalition against the capitalist class and present a united front.
Melting pot assimilation occurs in the United States when groups
anglo conformity model - americanization.... REREAD pg 242
In melting pot assimilation each group
group contributes a bit of its own culture and absorbs aspects of other cultures such that the whole is a combination of all the small groups.
Cultural pluralism occurs when a variety of
ethnic groups in a society maintain their disctinctive cultural patterns, subsystems, and institutions.
Assimilation and pluralism can occur
at the same time. Russian-American... assimilation happens in regards to economics, politics, and education, whereas cultural pluralism prevails in religion, the family, and recreation.
African-Americans are distinguished from the majority of Americans on the basis of
1. The 2nd largest racial, ethnic, minority group in the U.S. constituting 12.3 percent of the total population.
2. Originally from Africa.
Mexican-Americans are distinguished from the majority of Americans on the basis of
1. The largest racial, ethnic minority group in the U.S. constituting approximately 12.5 percent of the population.
2. They are descendents of the native Mexicans who lived in the Southwest before it becames part of the United States, following the Mexican-American war.
Asian-Americans are distinguished from the majority of Americans on the basis of
1. 3rd largest minority group 3.6%
2. Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Asian Indians (from India), Koreans, Vietnamese, and people from other Asian nations.
The minority group that has the lowest life expectancy, lowest school enrollment rates, and highest rate
of alcoholism is/are the:
Native Americans
White ethnic groups are distinguished from the majority of Americans on the basis of their
1. 75% dominance
2. European roots WASPS
3. Protestant ethic
4. Majority of these immigrants adopted American norms and values. Many dropped their European names in favor of names that sounded more American.
Jewish Americans are distinguished from the majority of Americans on the basis of their
1. Prominent religious ethnic groups.
2. America has the largest Jewish population in the world with its estimated 6.5 million exceeding the 4 million Jews in Israel.
Affirmative action originally meant to
eradicate institutional racism. It is meant to for employers to disregard race, creed, color, or national origin in hiring procedures, as well as in the treatment of employees.
Interracial contact leads to reduced prejudice when
1. The parties involved are of equal status.
2. The situation in which the contact occurs is pleasant or harmonious.
T F Race is unquestionably a meaningful biological concept.
T F Ethnicity is based on national origin, religion, and language.
T F The key characteristic of minority groups is their size.
T F The poor, the aged, and the handicapped are some examples of ethnic minority groups.
T F Prejudice is an overt act barring people from social institutions.
T F Prejudice is sustained through stereotypes.
T F Saying of a group “They breed like rabbits” is an example of discrimination.
T F Germany, Great Britain, and the United States have, at one time or another, encouraged genocide.
T F Minorities, especially Native Americans, blacks, and Mexican-Americans, suffer from low incomes, but they nevertheless receive as much education as mainstream whites.
T F African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, and American Indians are the three largest minority groups in the United States.
T F Slavery had considerable impact on the culture of African-Americans.
T F Mexican-Americans are noted for problems relating to the breakdown of the family.
T F The Chinese were the first Asians to enter this country in large numbers.
T F The Chinese have a history of being assimilated into American culture very rapidly.
T F Native Americans descend from a variety of groups who formed egalitarian bands.
What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination? How does each influence the lives of
African-Americans in the United States?
Describe the system of racial and ethnic stratification in the United States. How do minority groups suffer as a result of their low status?
Compare and contrast pluralism and integration.
Minority groups are set apart from the majority on the basis of power, norms, and size. How important
are each of these factors in determining who is a minority group?
What would be the advantage of each in the United
African-Americans have gone through six major social transitions during their history in the United
States. How have these transitions affected their minority status?

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