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phil ethics1


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Kantian Kingdom of Ends - response my objection - personal projects


Make case for demans in terms of respect, not happiness.

favor mutual aid and strong prohib acts desctructive conditions live others as r, mutually respecting, a agents. 

value setting and pursuing ends, mutual respect against rules stifle indiv and demand constant attention minor benefits.

Alienation and integrity responses

No CU, excep B, expl argue adopt u pov make decisions.

S dist Rail calls objective u-max overall b, s u-max what take to be overall benefit 

So CU no requ take up higher order committ or u pov so no alien or inconsist. 

Emperical responses - Utilitarianism - idea right and wrong

summary rules-when rules respected and followed, found promote utility.

Effect promise on practice

S-know more about how help ourselves and family and more opp to do so.

M - only rare occasions can we multiply hap on extended scale

Features of Hooker's view

actual expected-morality not tied to facts too difficult find out

compliance accept-accept includes disp comply, encourage others, form favorable attitudes others who comply, feel guilt

Universal-young children, mentally impaired, real worl

Hooker's RU

An act is wrong if and only if it is forbideen by the code of rules whose internalization by the overwhelming majority of all people in each new generation as maximum expected value in terms of wellbeing (with some priority for worst off).

If equ

How RU allows intuitively important moral rules - honesty, gratitude, loyalty

RU implies that particular acts that accord with a useful rule can be right even though an alternative act would actually produce more utility.

So not just general rule of thumb. 

Allow and even require partiality. 

Kantian response to my objection - moral motivation
We can see that extra reasons are provided by respecting people, that it is unjustifiable to them, honoring their dignity and so on.
Kantian response to my objection - Traditional responses

Kill one prevent two RU may disallow-Kantian ought not kill because implied by basic moral values

Ideal people affirm and express r a p concern relate with mutual respect and dignity

strong reason for people who respect ideal not lie, tortu

Kantian  response - my objection to utilitarianism

assess rules not in terms of max utility but other values

No comm intrinsic values can be aggre acr ps and max-value personal ends, help people achieve, but no way assign comm value 

give weight past com, rel, int, not just future

KOE - Dignity and humanity

conditions enable us to live our lives that expresses  our nature as free and equal rational, and mutually respectful, being as fully as circumstances permit. 

Justifiability, set ends, develop moral person, att respect others


Status and right action and deliberation guide, Found in Kant

Moral rules-status and value, exceptions

Parties, motivations, deliberations

Response to objections



Main idea of RU

shouldn't we try to live according to moral code whose communal acceptance would, as far as we can tell, have best consequences.

If conseq of all feeling free X better than not feeling so, how can act be wrong?

morality collective enter

My objection - intro - Rawls, Hill, and Scanlon

Does RU adequ explain approp grounds for choosing mr?

RU-mr evaluated only basis exp contrib overall utility, so nothing else ultim important-but is all matters in assessing?

May match CJ, still q whether ru describes grounds 

My objection - moral motivation and Scanlon

Is my motivation fully explained by awarness of fact that rule forbidding discrimination max u, or are there other reasons-discrim is demeaning, humiliating and so on.

RU cannot explain these further reasons 

My objection - problem one - personal projects

does permis pursue own projects depend only on whether moral rules allowing would max utility

If code allows, implies no free do so except rules max u-many doubt moral freedom rests only on this

Place all aspect of life and relat on agenda

My objection - Reflective equillibrium point
Have intuitions at all levels of generality, including moral point of view where try to conceive, specify and apply moral rules - in addition to intuitions about what ought to do in particular cases.
My objection and Hooker in particular
Best argument for RU is does better job of matching and tying together our moral convictions
My response - utilitarianism - ideas right and wrong
gestures-no science know max utility. Any CX, u argue could be conducive-stalemate

Criteria ra-rational response-one not troubl,S and M-CMJ serve as some evidence, accept of view condition on guess about rules-all it takes some conflict-so irr to subscr

My  objection - types of harm
rules forb harm-If turned out rules did not max u, or if allow many exceptions, would that settle the matter?

Or are other considerations relavant?-do our convictions rest solely on emp claims about what may max u?

Take chance allow these if c'

Objection to RU - collapse in to extensional equivalence with AC - RC must favor one simple rule, always maximize expected value.

Assumes that if each person complies with a rule requiring max of good, good max.

Internalization of rule can have conseq over and above compliance

And AC rule has high internalization cost since natural biases themselves and others. <

Objection to RU - version rule worship
RC incoherent b/c tells us follow a rule though breaking it do more good - if ultimate goal is max of good, seems incoherent follow rules when on eknows this will not max good
Outline - Rule Utilitarianism
Bipass intrinsic value 

Basic idea, similarity to contractualism

Status of rules and benefits

Hooker's view along with aspects 

Obj-collapse, worship, alienation, 2 mine

Personal Ends - KOE

part of valuing each person as rational agent, is give some weight in one's delib and conduct to permisible personal ends of others.

Protect ability and means to secure happiness.

Ability and opportunity to do the same for ourselves.&nb

Personal relationships and committments - Railton - Alienation and Integrity

Delib u pov, alienate from world and committ-1 seek subj states rather than world, feel Nozick-2 regard all goods purely instr to happ., but some strongest comm no derive, knowledge, friendship, loving relation valued as good in themselves


Personal relationships and committments - Williams - Alienation and Integrity  a

Will-higher order comm max overall utility incon lower -no app value fship also regardi as instrum to overall benefit. (comm, att, project)

Must give up, but if lower no longer myself, since give up something deeply identify with.

v integ

Personal relationships and projects - Williams and Special Ties

u conf other impo values have do special ties-fship love involve regarding certain fs as rs while u rules them out as rs.

Ex: 2 drowning, one my child, u req impa regard for all, so f child no count r, but ess rel l and f that special tie give me

Response to moral motivation and Scanlon - right action and motivation

Mill tried give account moral motivation U 3, follow S deny mt must provide it.  Discrep b/t cons picked by theory and motivates do not count


Response to rule worship - RU
RC produce more good because of points about internalization of AC, expectations, mistakes
Response to Williams' Special Ties

does fship require certain fs to be rs or for people to regard them as rs

Former too restrictive

latter allows fship in some emp circ, so can regard fact and act on it in some c,s even though not reason. 

Responses to emperical responses - Util - ideas right and wrong

No reason think there could not violate right and compensate for greater good.

Promises-Ross-overestimates cost, deathbed promises

Self-sacrifice-less persuasive than M and S wrote.  We have detailed info, and use credit cards easily.<

RU - benefits of moral rules

Transparency-people know you accept rule so never attack you

Expectation-assurance and incentive effects of public awarness that certain rules followed-trust break down

Mistakes-rules easy follow

Act quickly-Mill-disaster

RU and Contractualism - similarity

Generalization test-what if all felt free to do that

Agree commonsense against killing, stealing, breaking promise even when produce more good. 

Rule Utilitarianism - issue to bipass - value theory
What is intrinsically valuable - pleasure ignors intrinsic value of human experience and relatinoships not measured in pleasure, types of pleasures inadequate, Moore says good is intrinsic value distinct pleasure, but met and ep problems.  recent sat
Scanlon - Utilitarianism - How a moral view can explain the motivating force of judgments of right and wrong

rat person who judges suff r to do X normally forms intention to X, and this judg sufficient explain why formed intention.

Succeed explaining motivating force of mj by explaining reasons for action supplied by moral considerations. 

Second response to Scanlon - deliberative efficiency

f x wrong not give add r not do X, but coming to that judgment can provide add r not to.

gains delib effic if one's j that x wrong provides more mot force not X, ten motivated by belief X wrong be util max.

Expl S felt push conclud wron

Separateness of persons - one problem - Ross and Rawls (JAf)

only mor sign relation stand to me is potential benefactor.

Important, but other-promisee, wife, friend, debtor.  

personal charac of duty, u implies these relations make no diff to what requ do and value satisf desire-but do matter

Separateness of persons - second problem - Rawls TOJ

Essential feature of humankind that consists of plurality of distinct systems of ends.

Assuming correct regulative principle for something depends on nature, u gives inapprop conception morality. 

Reconstrc-CJ about nature of people&nb

Separateness of persons - Utilitarianism - Third problem CJ
It is precisely this conflation of desires that makes possible inappropriate tradeoffs between rights and jsutice on the one hand and social interest on the other.
Separateness of persons - Utilitarianism objections

u appro q's appl to mor princ of rat choice for one person-rp requires balance-moral same pri appl all people, rat for one situated p right for all-ideal sympathy, imag and rat.-right=eff admin

Conflates all systems of desires, so all p'

Singer and demandingness - Utili
Singer-donations can savel ives, money has dmu, each dollar buy more in Ethiopia, and others not give much-good max if give most to charities, taking in to account future potential give.
Status of the KOE theory

account of right action

and a deliberative standpoint - not decision guide - but way of framing and thinking about moral issues - trying to characterize moral point of view. 

Subject of moral deliberation - KOE

System of moral rules - a Metaphysics of Morals - package best respects basic ideal human dignity

What issues placed under moral rules

interpret, assess stringency, specify exceptions 

Types of rules legislators would come to - KOE
mutual aid, strong pro acts destroy conditions nec living as r, mr, a agents, mutual respect, benefici, deciet, discrimination, slavery, stifle individuality, freedom pursue own life plans
Utilitarianism - Demandinginess -Singer and Williams

unreason demand-constr as duties what seem superogatory self-sacrifice, Singer

Not employed by universe-supero, and even when benefit slightly higher

Mor some requires sign sacrifice, and very praiseworthy

requ if benefit slight

Utilitarianism - moral motivation - Scanlon

U implies only mf about wb-but these f's do not fully account for motivation to do right

Singer, moved not just sense how bad, but further thought wrong not to help when easy.

no expl fur f give addit r, so no expl r giving force of i

Utilitarianism - Obj - promises

Ross and Brandt

Only reason keep promise is will bring more good, otherwise break-Ross, keep p 1000, break 1001, break p.

produc slightly more good not suff reason to release oblig

resp-practice-1 overestimates cost, 2 deathbed <

Utilitarianism - objections - Rawls and Justice

Commonsense conviction that each person possesses inviolability, founded on justice and nat right, that welfare of everyone cannot supersede.

Utilitarianism allows violations of this status-punish innocent, violate basic rights, discrimination.&n

Utilitarianism - response to separateness of persons

summary rules can have highly personal character, impose duties on us-Mill for example thinks this

regard relationships as sign, useful myth

do we have CJ

open q illicit tradeoffs

Utilitarianism objections - ideas of right and wrong-overview

many acts wrong though no effect on utility,promote utility no guarantee right

ideas rw-justice,promises,slavery,demandingness

sep persons, Foot, moral motivation, personal relationships, my objection


Value of moral rules - KOE ethics
apply basic moral principles, shape valuable forms of life and b/g of moral relationships, coordinate behavior,assurances, encourage desireable behavior, blame others, express values integrity, respect, solidarity,
Values implicit in humanity

life, liberty, respect, autonomy, justifiability, justice

Respect-full recognition as moral person, same moral worth 

What we should do with moral rules - KOE ethics
respect, teach, socially enforce, publicly aknowledge, internalize

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