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Psychology Unit 2


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Define: Learning
mechanisms of adaptation in an individual's life
Define: Habituation
decreased responding to reps of stimulus. (As long as the action is proven not to be harmful, the creature ignores it. In humans= noise and smell are common)
Define: Sensitization
Increase responding to reps (pet peeves)
Define: Operant Conditioning
behaviors follwed by positive events tend to be repeated. Behaviors followed by negative events tend not to be repeated. (onset of a good event=Re+ offset of a bad event= Re- onset of a bad event= punishment offset of a good event= punishment)
Define: Negative and Positive Reinforcement Operate or Classical conditioning?
Negative reinforcement (Re-)= the ending of a bad event. Positive reinforcement (Re+)= the start of a good event. Operant conditioning
Define: resistance to extinction Operate or Classical conditioning?
CS (conditioned stimulus) without UCS (unconditional stimulus), CR (conditioned response) goes away Classical Conditioning
Extinction vs Spontaneous Recovery In Classical Conditioning
Extinction (CS without UCS, CR goes away) Spontaneous Recovery (extinction, break, Cs withous USC, CR returns) CS= conditioned stimulsu UCS= unconditioned response CR= conditioned response
Classical Condition vs Operant Conditioning
CC= involuntary responses (reflexes, emotions) OC= instrumental (shaped by + or - outcomes that follow behavior)
Define: Thorndike's Law of Effect Operate or Classical conditioning?
i. Behaviors followed by positive event tend to be repeated ii. Behaviors followed by negative event tend not to be repeated Operant Conditioning
Give an example of Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning.
Classical= knee jerks Operant= stopping smoking, and not coughing.
Define: Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) (come up with personal example)
stimulus part of the reflex
Define: Unconditioned response (UCR) (come up with personal example)
response part of the reflex
Define: Conditioned Stimulus (CS) (come up with personal example)
In Classical Conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicite the conditioned response (dinner bell)
Define: Conditioned Response (CR) (come up with personal example)
In Classical Conditioning, a response elicited by a previouls neutral stimuls that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus (mouth watering at dinner bell)
Which of the two types of conditioning tends to be involuntary?
Classical Conditioning
Define: Discrimination learning Classical Conditioning or Operant Conditioning?
when an organism learns to respond one stimulus and not to another (lunch bell vs class change bell) Classical Conditioning
Define: Conditioned taste aversions
when you won't eat something because its made you sick in the past. Great for survival!
Who was Little Albert and John Watson
Little Albert was a baby that Watson trained with pain to hate white rats.He soon hated everything that was white.
Define: Operant
an obsrvable behavior that an organism uses to "operate" in, or have an effect on,the environment
Define: Observational learning
a form of cognitive learning in which new responses are acquired after watching other's behavior and the consequences of their behavior.
Define: Cognitive map
a mental image that an organism uses to navigate through a familiar environment.
Define: Mental Set
The tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used for a previous problem
Define: The Jensen Controversy
The contention by Harvard psychologist Arhtur Jensen that racial differences in IQ have a substantial genetic basis
Define: IQ as seen on "normal curve"
A bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characterstic throughout a population
Define: "Bell Curve" Argument
an argument that states that racial differences in IQ have a strong genetic basis and if scoietyjust accepted it, the nation could move to a more enlightened and humane social policies.
Define: Functional fixedness
The inability to perceive a new use for an object associated with a different purpose, a form of mental set.
Algorithsm vs Heuristics
algorithms are problem solving procedures or formulas that guarentee a correct outcome, if correctly applied and heuristics are cognitive strategies or "rules of thumb" used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks. Unlike algorithms, heuristics do not gaurentee a correct soltuion.
Define: Spearman's G factor
A general ability, proposed by Spearman, as the main factor underlying all intelligent mental activity.
Define: Gardner's 7 Intelligences
linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal
Aptitude vs achievement
aptitude is the innate potentialities and acheivement is what they are able to get done with those potentialities
Define: IQ
MA/CA*100- Inteligence testing, Intelligence Qoutient = mental age/ chronological age times one hundred
What data shows that labeling children as "slow" and "fast" has effects on their later intellectual developement?
Children tend to go with the labels that the teachers were told about them. Those labeled as "spurters" blossomed and those who weren't did not do as well. It can have a positive effect on those labeled as spurters and detrimental to those who aren't. This was shown in an experiment with children and teachers that took a year.
Be able to recognize or present and explain at least one source of data which shows that "intelligence" has one heritable component and and one source of data which shows that "intelligence" is also determined by the environment.
The testing of fraternal and identical twins show strong genetic correlation of "intelligence" is. Even testing between adopted children and their biological parents--the Human Genome Project tested this--the correlation was strong. For environmental, a longitudal study done on children from 110 impoverished homes done over a period of ten years, assessing their home environment on two factors: how stilmulating was it? How nurturing was it? The study revealed a strong association between a stimulating environment and language ability (but not memory) and and unexpected assication between nurturance and memory (but not language ability)
What are the characteristics that correlate with creative intelligence?
Intelligence and creativitry are two different abilities. Creativity involves wanting to be creative adn going against the norm, it's about attitude, it lies beyond IQ.
Be aware of the social issues surrounding IQ testing as reflected in the texts discussion of the Jensen controversy and the "bell curve" argument of Hernstein and Murray.
Jensen argued that since intelligence was hereditary it did not change--he cited some examples about black people who went through gorvernment programs and showing no results. RACIST. In their Book The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life they argue that racial difference were accepted and the mation could move on to more enlightened and humane social policies RACIST!!!
What did Kohler's work with Chimps and Tolman's work with rats do to the idea of learning?
No longer could ALL human learning be explained in terms of classical and operant conditioning. This movtivated the idea of a more complex form of learning.
Define: Encoding
the first of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the modification of information to fit the preferred format for the memory system
Define: Eidetic imagery
an especially clear and persistent form of memory that is quite rare, sometimes known as “photographic memory”
Define: LTM
relatively permanent; controlled by recentcy, emotional connection, and “fit” with existing knowledge; gradual, intermittent “forgetting”; seemingly unlimited in capacity; non-literal storage
Define: Elaboration
elaborating and associating a memory with something; the more meaning you are able to give to the thing to be remembered, the easier it will be to recall it later
Define; Sensory register (or sensory memory)
information the five senses process, memories last no more than a few seconds; visual sensory: info lasts for 1/3 of a second; auditory sensory: info lasts for 2-3 seconds
Define: Chucking (in working memory)
way to reinforce something in STM, breaking whatever you need to remember into “chunks” to remember it easier; visual chunks, CPU chunks, and behavioral/motor chunks
Define: Retrieval
the third basic task of memory, involving the location and recovery of information from memory
Define: Working memory (STM)
temporary storage/activation of info needed for current tasks
Define: Maintenance rehearsal
a working-memory process in which information is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory. Maintenance rehearsal involves no active elaboration.
Define: Elaborative Rehearsal
a working-memory process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM
Define: Procedual Memory
knowing how to do something; unconscious memory
Recall vs Recognition
Recall- an act of retrieving something from LTM Recognition- a feeling of familiarity when something previously experienced is experienced again, like remembering seeing someone’s face without remembering their name
Define:TOT phenomenon
tip-of-the-tongue; when you remember something, you just can’t thing of the word.
Define: Reconstructive memory
recall that is hypothesized to work by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory during recall
Define: Rehearsal loop
continuously recalling and rehearsing an event to cement in LTM
Define: Acousitic encoding (Phonogical code)
the conversion of information, especially semantic information, to sound patterns in working memory
Episodic memory vs Semantic memory
Episodic- a subdivision of declarative memory that stores memory for personal events, or “episodes”; autobiographical Semantic- a subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including the meanings of words and concepts; words&facts
Define:Source memory (source monitoring)
“what is remembered” is remembered better than where/how you learned “what is remembered”
Proactive vs retroactive interference
Proactive- what you already know interferes with what you’re trying to remember Retroactive- when what you’ve learned interferes with what you already know
Define: Repression
unconscious hiding (repression) of uncomfortable, unhappy, or traumatic memories
Define: Consolidation (in boxes and arrows model)
Input/Stimulià sensory register à STM à consolidation/rehearsal loop à LTM; with loss at every level
Define: Declarative memeory
know that...(facts); conscious
Define: H.M. and Anterograde amnesia
had severe epilepsy, had a bilateral removal of hippocampus, contracted anterograde amnesia, which made him unable to consolidate info from STM to LTM,
Define: Reality monitioring
"did I just think about doing that or did I actually do it?"
Define: Serial position effect
items at the beginning of a list are most likely to be remembered, followed by the items at the end of the list, with the items in the middle being the least like to be remembered
Define: Mood Congruent memory
a memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match (are congruent with) one mood
Define: Method of loci
a mnemonic technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations
Continuous vs Intermittent reinforcement Classical or Operant Conditioning?
Continuous= A type of reinforcement schedule by which all correct responses are reinforced Operant Conditioning Intermittent= a type of reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all, correct response are reinforced.
Extinction (in operant conditioning) and Spontaneous recovery
A process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement Spontaneous recovery= the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay.
Define: Stimulus generalization
The extension of a learned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus (you get bit by a husky dog, you are scared of ALL dogs)
Extinction (in OC) vs Extinction (in CC)
OC-A process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement CC- The weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus
Shaping and magazine training
Shaping=An Operant learning technique in which a new behavior is gradually produced by reinforcing reponses that are similar to the desire response

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