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Broadsheet Newspapers
-Run top to bottom -12 to 15 inches wide. -22.5 inches tall -Grid: 5 to 7 columns
First Broadsheet
-USA Today revolutionized newspaper design 27 years ago, when they first issued a broadsheet wiht full color progress. Sept. 15th,1982
Layout Dummy
-before graphic design software simplified the process, page designers used "dummy sheets."
Mug Shots
-are informational, should not run too big on the page. -generally run as "thumbnail" mug 6 picas or half of a regular column.
Which is the best way to stack a big vertical and a small horizontal photo?
L-shaped text dummied to the left of the lead photo.
Which grid is most common for tabloids?
5 columns.
When no art is available, your best option for designing a page is to use uniformly sized headlines.
In which case is it advisable to use a raw wrap?
At the top of a page.
Which is a weak practice for dummying inside pages:
Dummying boxed stories near ads.
Banner Ad
an advertisement stripped across the top or the bottom of a web page.
a page element that extends to the trimmed edge of a printed page.
Bumping/Butting heads
headlines from adjacent stories that collide with each other. Should be avoided when possible. Also called tombstoning.
a vertical stack of text also called a leg.
Column inch
a way to measure the depth of text and ads. It's an area one column wide and one inch deep.
Column Rule
a vertical line separating stories or running between legs within a story.
Double Truck
two facing pages on the same sheet of newsprint, treated as one unit.
text or graphic elements on either side of a newspaper flag.
an old printing term for a square-shaped blank space that's as wide as the type is high. A 10-point em space will be 10 points wide.
a half an em space. a ten point en space will be 5 points wide.
a small story or graphic element used to fill space on a page.
to dummy a photo or headline in an empty space so that it looks good to the designer,but looks akward to everyone else.
a part of a column set in a narrower width. Columns are indented to accomodate art, logos or initial caps.
art or text set inside other art or text.
a placement of art and text on a page. To lay out a page is to design it.
the ease at which type characters can be read.
Letter spacing
the amount of air between characters in a word.
the space between elements
the width of a headline or column of text.
Modular Layout
a design system that views a page as a stack of rectangles.
placing one element (text, photo, artwork) so it partially overlaps one another.
Pyramid ads
advertisements stacked up one side of a page, wide at the base but progressively smaller near the top.
another term for a large page layout; usually refers to a photo page.
predetermined points used to align data into vertical columns.
a newspaper format that's roughly half the size of a broadsheet newspaper.
ads stacked along both edges of the page, forming a deep through for stories in the middle.
White space
areas of page free of any type of artwork.
Double trucks work best if you
A) clear off all ads. B) treat both pages as one horizontal unit. C) save them for special occasions. D) All of the above.
These three formats are most often used for dummying ads:
Stair-step, well, modular
If you have to jump a story, how many times can you jump per story?
Approximately how much smaller is a tabloid than a broadsheet newspaper?
As a general rule, pages should contain approximately how much art?
Another name for butting headlines is
How many column widths should be used for one story?
Front page design is
not more difficult than inside page design, although standards are higher.
What is a bastard measure?
A non-standard column width.
Single page newspapers were once called
John Peter Zenger
published "Publick Occurences" -the purpose of a broadsheet was to post royal proclamations, acts and official notices. -But quickly became a medium for communication important news and advertising. Broadsheets=more important and more factual.
Industrial Revolution and Broadsheets!
-the advent of the Industrial Revolution made high speed, mass production newspapers. BROADSHEETS ARE: -12 TO 15 INCHES WIDE -22.5 INCHES TALL -Broadsheets are becoming narrower because PAPER is EXPENSIVE. Broadsheets run from TOP to BOTTOM, and are folded HORIZONTALLY in half to accomodate newstand display space. COLUMNS- 5 to 7 columns on section fronts. Usually 6 columns inside. -Most important news goes before the fold. USA TODAY revolutionized newspapers with their colorful broadsheet design newspaper.
-Make sure the quote is good enough to lift out. Is it informative? Does it capture the readers interest? Keep quote outs neat and balanced in the display -Complete sentences -No hyphens -Avoid randomness Put quote outs in the TOP OF THE MIDDLE column. Never at the bottom of the page! Don't force readers to jump over, or shimmy around a quote out. Work WITH THE GRID. Integrate the quote as you would a piece of artwork such as a photo or a info-graphic. -Avoid awkward splits of modifiers and prepositions at the end of a line.
-Advertisements anchor most inside pages. This space is allotted before the designer gets the page. Often you are NOT allowed to move ADs without permission. *Ad stacks come in three configurations - STAIRSTEP - THE WELL - MODULAR
STAIRSTEP(Inside Page)
Is the most common, It's popular because advertisers believe readers will see their ad if it's next to the story they're reading. Ceates a modular challenge for page designers.
THE WELL (Inside Page)
Is the least common arrangement. Usually seen in small town newspapers, where design isn't a major consideration. This design is very difficult to achieve.
If a story is too long...
-trim the text -trim a photo -trim an adjacent story -drop a line from the headline -move an ad (WITH PERMISSION!!!)
If a story turns out too short...
-Add more text -Enlarge a photo -Add a mug shot -Add a liftout quote -Add another headline -Add some air between paragraphs -Add a filler story -Add a house ad -Move an ad (WITH PERMISSION!!!)
Jumping Stories
-Make it worth the reader's while. -Start the story solidly (at least 4 inches of text). -Jump sotries to the same place -Jump stories ONCE and only ONCE!
-If a photo sits at the intersection of two stories in a way that confuses or misdirects the reader, move it. -If two stories-or headlines-seem inappropriate together on the same page,
Most Common Tabloid Layout for Inside Pages...
four or five-column grids
Newspaper History
The Penny Press (1830's) -tabloids were more urban than rural. -reached out to the readers in a hurry. -offered human interest stories, police news, entertainment, etc. -Newspapers were switching from biased to political writing. -During the 1940's the percentage of newspaper readers declined. People read less often. -People tend to read the paper more on Sunday's -1 percent drop a year since 2002 and the number of readers continue to decrease.
Newspaper on the Web
-started during the 21st century. -the only part of news seeing growth is on the web. -How will web journalism survive? People don't pay for newspapers if they can read it on the web for free.
Web vs. Newspapers
-the internet opens up audiences, but still lacks the portability and pass-along qualities as print does. -Advertising space is less prominent on the web. -Layouts lack in visual impact than today's ad designers want.
-offer a sense of fun, less rigid structure than traditional broadsheets. They seem less bulky and quicker to read. -Readers perfer a smaller format. -Some media analysts say the U.S. will not buy tabloids. -Broadsheets always out sell tabloids.
Mario Garcia
-a famous designer. -prefers the term compact over tabloid. He avoids the term tabloid because it is associated with sensationalism.
Downside to Tabloids
-It is difficult to print and easy to share a broadsheet section with someone (this is less so for tabloids). -Americans see tabloids as less serious and authoritative news outlets. Tabloids are seen as unprofessional, immature and amateurish. -People expect tabloids to be free and are less willing to pay a paid subscription for them. -If a broadsheet switches to a tabloid it depends on paid subscriptions for about 15 percent of their earnings.
Upside to Tabloids
-Tabloids attract the younger generation. -Readership is up -No one raised the issue of the Banner's credibility so this must be good.
Tabloid Failure
The Patriot News tried to switch to tabloid style and they failed. Traditional people were used to their broadsheet style.
Scandinavia (Sweden) Newspapers
-are obsessed with improving their print. -Purposely switched from broadsheet to tabloid. -Print can do a greater design than the web. Print is more artistic. -More middle class people are reading newspapers online now for free. People are more computer savvy. -Complacency doesn't exist in print. People are never satisfied, yet they don't like change. -Redesigns are common. New ideas are embraced. Magazines change every year. -A strong print component is essential to the media house concept. -Newspapers should communicate with their photographers and designers. -A heavy focus is on the latest and coolest design trends. -Very few broadsheets are left in Scandinavia. -Newspapers are looking more and more like magazines. -Use creativity, white space, maps, and two-page spreads that are used to tell big stories.
Arne Edvardsen (Nordic Design)
-Large photos -Graphics (maps and charts) -Great use of white space -Creative use of type -Magazine design
Red War in Chicago
Chicago Tribunes (Red Eye) vs. Chicago Sun-Times (Red Streak)
-Try to keep art from sitting on top of advertisements. -Have entry points to lure readers into the text. Most stories are shorter than those in broadsheets. -DONT PUT A PHOTO ABOVE AN ADVERTISEMENT -The most common means of visual communication is still Modular Design.
Good Photos
-Page designers must choose images to use
Choosing a Photo
-make every photo natural not staged. -every photo should have a cutline -Every photo should have a boarder. -Every face in the photo should be the size of a dime or a nickel. -Design software allows the user the freedom to distort images.
Things to AVOID when choosing a photo:
-Never flip the photo to change the directional (LYING!!! UNETHICAL) -Never change the proportion to make it fit a space. This is when you stretch the sides or bottom by distorting the image. -Never add or remove objects in the photo you don't like. -Never run a photo illustration (a staged photo, Blue Banner H1N1 front page). ALWAYS tell the reader that you made it up.
The FOUR Major Categories of Photos:
1. Informational 2. Graphically appealing 3. Emotionally appealing 4. Intimate
Informational Photos
-are the lowest standard of photos. Overall view is a "dirt photo," "grip n' grin," "the execution at dawn," "the guy at the desk," " the board meeting."
Graphically Appealing Photos
-a little better in composition. Have attractive lines and angles, but no emotion. Just still objects taken shot at a really cool angle, no life.
Emotionally Appealing Photos
-you can capture the moment -full of emotion -dramatic events or shots taken of people in action and their facial expressions. You can tell what is going on by the things in the photo. -you can make a connection with the photo. - you can create a story just by looking at the photo.
Intimate Photos
-you feel the human connection. -usually close up shots of people. Used for feature/personality stories. -The eyes are the window of the soul.
-Don't get too cramped with photos, add enough space. -Also don't leave in too much extra space. -Don't ruin a graphically appealing photo.
Cropping Tips
-Move the image to a higher category of photos (to look more graphically appealing). -Crop out unnecessary backgrounds and space to add impact. -Don't cut off body parts that bend! Only torso, side and top of the head photos. -Photo's should have directional and a center of visual impact.
What do I crop out?
-look closely at the image. -Avoid backside photos. No butts, backs, or back of heads. ONLY SHOW FACES. -Avoid a center of visual interest that is irrelevant, boring objects. -Remember the rule of thirds. Balance entry spots on left or right third of the image. -Keep it simple and elegant. Crop out distracting elements if they don't match pertain to the story. -Read the story that accompaines the photo. --Keep the photos relevant to the story.
-are informational, so don't run them too big on the page. -they generally run them as "thumbnail" mugs. about 6 picas or a half of a regular column. -Avoid PUTTING MUGS of news makers IN THE LEADS. It looks like they wrote the page. -MUGS SHOULD GO IN THE MIDLE COLUMN. -Generally, mugs are best in the MIDDLE column of the story if the writer already mentioned the person. -AVOID running a MUG at the beginning of the story. who isn't named until the jump of another. -Two mugs together create coherence and a heavier visual element. -When using multiple mugs, pay attention to their eye line, they shouldn't be looking off of the page. -Too many mugs look like a high school year-book. -Always wrap the text under pictures. -When a mug has a clear direction, avoid looking out of the story or off of the page. -Avoid cutting too many "chimneys" (narrow strips of text) by using mugs or quotes.
Layout and design
-all stories should be shaped like rectangles. Page should consist of rectangles stacked together. -Avoid placing any graphic element in the middle of a leg of type. -avoid placing art at the bottom of a leg of type. -Text that wraps below a photo should be at least one inch deep. -In vertical layouts, stack elements in this order: photo, cutline, headline, text. -Every page should have a dominant piece of art. -A well-designed page is usually at least one-third art. -Avoid dummying a photo directly at the top of an advertisement. -Avoid boxing stories in just to keep the headlines from butting. It's best to box stories only if they're special or different.
-the optimum depth for legs of text is 2 to 10 inches. -Avoid dummying legs of text more than 20 picas wide, or narrower than 10 picas. -Use italics, boldface, reverses or any other special effects in small doses. -Type smaller than 8 point is difficult to read. Use small type sparingly, and avoid printing it behind a screen.
-Every story MUST have a headline. -Headlines get smaller as you move down the page. Smaller stories get smaller headlines. -5-10 words is optimum for most headlines. -Never allow an art element to come between the headline and the start of a news story. -Don't butt headlines! If you must, run the left headline several counts short, than vary their sizes and the number of lines. -When writing headlines: avoid stilted wording, jargon, omitted verbs, bad split; write in the present tense.
-Shoot photos of real people doing real things. -Directional photos should face the text they accompany -When in doubt, run one big photo instead of two small ones. -When using two or more photos, make one dominant that is, substantially bigger than any competing photo. -Try to vary the shapes and size of all photos (as well as stories) on a page.
-To avoid confusion, run on cutline per photo; each cutline should touch the photo it describes. -When cutlines run beside phtos, they should be at least 6 picas wide. -When cutlines run below photos, square them off as evenly as possible on both sides of the photo. They should not extend beyond either edge of the photo. -Avoid windows in any cutline more than one line deep.
-Run at least 4 inches of a story before you jump it. -Jump at least 6 inches of a story (to make it worth the reader's effort). -Jump stories once and only once. Whenever possible, jump to the same place.
Making the best of Bad Photos
-Crop aggressively -Edit carefully -Retouch mistakes -Run a sequence -Reshoot -Try another photo source -Use alternative art. -Bury it. -Mortise one photo over another. -Do without a photo
From the Camera to the Page
1. The photographer arrives at the scene 2. The photos are downloaded into a computer. 3. The strongest imags are edited and processed. 4. Photos are selected and approved. 5. Photos are posted on the publication's website 6. And designed onto pages for printing.
When Processing Digital Images consider...
1. Brightness 2. Contrast 3. Color Balance 4. Color Saturation
Photo-Journalism Ethics
Do not "doctor" photos, change the direction, add or eliminate anything from original photos.
Photo Sizes!!!!
1. 100%- the original size of a digital photo, the largest size at which details remain sharp. -200%- this is twice the size of the original photo. But as those jagged pixels become visible, the photo looks fuzzy. -50%- this image is half the size of the original photo. Details become more difficult to see.
Photo Halftones and Screens
1. 65-line screen- coarse screen with only 65 rows of dots per inch. Dots are apparent, but the ink won't smear too badly when printed on rough paper. Avoid using screens this coarse. 2. 85-line screen: because limitations of newsprint, this is the most common screen density newspapers use. If the screen is too fine, the dots may smear, disappear or become blotchy. 3. Horizontal-line screen: most halftones use ordered rows of dots. A random pattern of dots produces a mezzotint, much like an old etching.
Scanning Terminology
Grayscale- a scan of a photograph or piece of artwork that uses gray tones(up to 256 different shades of gray to be precise. 2. Line Art- an image composed of solid black and white (no gray). 3. Image Size: the physical dimensions of the final scanned image. Also known as file size, which is the total number of electronic pixels needed to create a digital image. 4. Dots per inch (DPI) the number of electronic dots per inch that a printer can print. 5. Lines per inch (LPI) the number of lines of dots per inch in a halftone screen. 6. Resolution: the quality of detail in a digital image, depending upon it's number of dots per inch (dpi). A higher-resolution image is much sharper than a low-res image. 7. (JPEG): a common format for compressing images for e-mailing or posting online which nobody cares about. 8. Moire (mo-ray) pattern: a strange, annoying dot pattern formced when a previously screened photo is copied, then reprinted using a new halftone screen.
When Scanning...
-Name and store scans carefully. -Allow for dot gain (images usually print darker than they appear on your monitor. -Crop and scale images as you scan. -Consider using low-resolution scans for big jobs. -Keep your file sizes as small as possible.
Image Resolutions!!!!!
-High Resolution (for magazines and books) -Fair Resolution (for newspapers) -Low resolution ( for webpages)
A good photo crop...
-Eliminates what's unnecessary. -Adds Impact -Leaves air/space where it is needed
A bad photo crop...
-Amputates body parts -Forces the image into an awkward shape. -Changes the meaning of a photo. -Violates works of art
Photo Spreads
-Covering a major event (disaster, election night, the Big Game) from a wide variety of angles-often from several photographers. -Exploring a topic or trend (the homeless, neo-Nazis, etc.) -Profiling a personality (an athlete, a disease victim, politician) -Telling a story ( the birth of a baby, boot camp, an artist in action) -Displaying objects/places ( a tour of a new building, fall fashions, hot toys for Christmas).
Photo Illustrations
- Instantly conveys what the story is about. -Should never be mistaken for reality. -Works with the headline -Performs with flair (cleverness)
Studio Shots
-Fasion -Food -Portraits -Cultural objects (CD covers, etc.)
Risky Business
-Stealing (using copyrighted art without permission) -Framing (Don't do it: pictures should be boarded with thin, simple rules not fancy frames. -Flopping (UNETHICAL! It is lying to the readers. This is not the original photo. -Reshaping (cutting distorts their meaning, clutters u the page and confuses the reader. -Tilting (only tilt art that can be tilted). -Silhouetting (If a photo has a distracting background you can create a silhouette. It needs to be a neat crop though.
A photo printed backward, as a mirror image, has been...
List four photos to avoid:
1. Grip n' Grin 2. Execution at dawn 3. The board meeting 4. The guy at his desk
When you're using the full photo image, you're using the....
full frame
The pattern formed when a previously screened image is copied is called a...
To let the page "breathe," add...
white space
How should you handle a bad photo?
Use Alternative Art!
A photo that’s half the size of the original is called a....
50% reduction
A photo that's 3 times the size of the original is called a...
300% enlargement
The density of a halftone screen is measured by numbers of...
lines per inch
Newspapers commonly use which of the following screen densities?
A scan may be saved as a/an
Stand-alone photos are sometimes called...
Wild Art
Photo spreads are appropriate for
-covering major events. -exploring a topic or trend. -profiling a personality.
Dominant photos work best in...
the top half of the layout
A gray background screen...
can help organize and enhance layouts
True Facts
If you have a headline before you start designing, you are likely to produce a better-looking and more coherent page. A scanner digitizes images. A loose crop can keep the action in the photo from jamming into the edge of the frame. Every photo needs a cutline. Bad art is worse than no art at all. A meaningful remark that is pulled from the text and given special design treatment is a lift out quote What are the advantages of the tabloid format?Easier to produce and cheaper to print; Stories and ads can dominate a page more effectively; Popular with readers.

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