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Psych Exam 2


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Type 1 Processing
Repeated processing at same level can maintain things in attention, but not very good for LTM
Type 2 Processing
Intentional and incidental learning that leads to improved memory performance (doesn't matter, just depth does!)
Codes fail to reach semantic level for 3 reasons:
1. Nature of material (little semantic value - digits) 2. Limited processing capacity available (if you get too much info quickly you may not have enough time to do semantic analysis) 3. Task Demands (people don't try to do deep analysis for short-term memory tasks)
Ebbinghaus "What to Learn"
simple, homogenious, numerous, no/neutral meaning, nonsense syllables
+ Punishment - Punishment + Reinforcement - Reinforcement
(+) make you do something you don't want to do (-) take away something you like (+) reward (-) remove unwanted stimulus
Baddeley says levels of processing doesn't matter for priming..buttt..
How you INITIALLY process the stimulus DOES matter for priming (make 2 size judgments vs. making a judgment about in/organic and then size judgment)
New learning, speed, executive processes, working memory .. circadian influences this learning (children & adults morning types, young adults are neutral or evening)
information that you have already learned really well (ie. vocabulary) is not affected by circadian rhythm - priming (implicit/automatic) processes can help take over for the "bad" times of day (4am)
Meaning provides..
predictability and support
more specific cue does a better job of reducing the number of possibilities one has to search through
generalized conceptual knowledge used in understanding - meaningfully organizes concepts - tells us what to expect and what unstated information we can infer
event schemas
Results of balloon study
*Suitable illustration before text* - Only the coherent illustration helped, and only when it was presented before the text
3 Characteristics of Skilled Memory
1. Encode meaningfully using pre-existing knowledge (stereotypes) 2. Attach retrieval cues to strcuture based on pre-existing knowledge..not necessarily semantic (ie. chunking/rhythm) 3. Process becomes faster with practice
How do redundancy and predictability help learning?
- provide organization - facilitated connections between what you know and new info - reduce amount of "new" learning required because you can guess/anticipate what will come next (schemas)
Cloze Technique
- a way to measure the amount of redundancy/redictability - The more red/pred the easier it is to recall - give sentences with missing words to subjects (high: most people give same response, low: many different responses/lots of variability)
Total Time Hypothesis
More time (repetitions) spent on initial learning, less time needed to re-learn later on *Benefits of Overlearning*
Distributed Practice
- an exception to the total time hypothesis - consolidation (biological), multiple instances/contexts (habituation), more attention
Inter-Trial Rest Interval
Does not seem to be a strong contributor to distributed practice effects
Inter-Item Repetition Lag
*Micro-distribution of practice - increase gap between repetitions the more you know the word
Baddeley says levels of processing doesn't matter.. only partially true
If you have thought about the meaning it affects priming (conceptual priming) - how you initially process the stimulus does matter for priming
Standard classical conditioning
the conditioned stimulus comes first and overlaps with the unconditioned stimulus (simultaneous, and backward conditioning have no predictive value)
Trace Conditioning
(memory/hippocampally mediated conditioning) - can eventually learned by amnesics but takes much longer than controls - CS and US do not overlap therefore hippocampus is needed - awareness/explicit memory seems to help
Skill Learning
- Learning "how" instead of "that" - Explicit learning/awareness may help in learning complex sequences - in other situations, implicit and explicit learning/memory systems may interfere with each other * MTL: (declarative)explicit > implicit * Caudate: (procedural)implicit > explicit - Competitive relationship between MTL and caudate for skill learning
Capacity and Processing
May limit how much deep processing we are able to do in a situation *Dichotic Listening Experiment - takes a while to know that 1st is the same if listening to the 2nd because only process 1st as phonological not semantic
Imagery & Mnemonics
The more verbal elaboration = increased working memory (Broca's area) - Increased thinking about image = increased activation in visual regions
Transfer Appropriate Processing
*A criticism about LOP* - Better remember rhyming word if you first processed word in one way (rhyming) and not another way (if words are related)
Encoding Specificity (under TAP)
Memory is better the more that the information at test "matches" what is encoded
process b y which memories become more "solid" or long-lasting. *Criticism of LOP* - Amnesics can make judgments about words (alcohol: info that learned BEFORE drink on day 1 recalled on day 2)
Negative Recency
If terminal items have been less deeply processed than initial items, the LOP formulation would predict that in a subsequent recall attempt, final items should be recalled least well of all list items (OR recent items rehearsed less than earlier items)
TOT, accessibility, availability
*Tip of tongue* - Accessibility: have the memory and you are able to retrieve it - Availability: in memory but may not be able to retrieve it at the moment (TOT!) - TOT state evidence: subjects were able to recall how many syllables and provide info such as initial letter
Quantitative "strength" of a memory but lacks specific details (noetic) - curved, symmetrical ROC - perihinal cortex (frontal) "Know Judgments"
Qualitative: specific details about study episode (autonoetic) - Straightens line and makes less symmetrical ROC - parahippocampal cortex and hippocampus (parietal) "Remember Judgments"
Jacoby: "Process Dissociation Procedure" Instructions - which are famous?
* Inclusion - names you read before ARE famous (relies on recollection + familiarity) * Exclusion - names you read before ARE NOT famous (puts recollection and familiarity in opposition)
Dual Process Model for Episodic Retrieval
Familiarity and Recollection * F>R: faster, perceptual changes, fluency manipulations, declines as retention interval increases, more sensitive to manipulations of response criteria * R>F: elaborative encoding, more attention needed at encoding and retrieval
Hypoxic Patients
Their hippocampus is very vulnerable during oxygen deprivation and most patients develop memory difficulties
Retrieval Cues
Snippets of information that allow one to access a memory trace - RC need to be presented at the same time as the target word in order to be useful
Context Dependency
Reinstating the environment of learning enhances recall **No trace of context dependency for recognition tests..only free/cued recall - This is because the initial search state is not needed for recog. tests
Mood Congruency
material that is not neutral, but positively or negatively emotionally toned causes mood effects
Sternberg Experiment
- Serial scanning problems **subjects were supposed to decide at end of digits if there had been a match - the answer "No" should take longer than "Yes" but did not - When probe was last digit, subjects respond rapidly
Connectionist Model
Providing one piece of info will lead to the activation of other connected units
Encoding Specificity
What is stored depends on what is perceived and how it attended to.. -what is stored determines what retrieval cues will be effective
Generate-Recognize Models
Mentally generate response to cues and recognize the one that was on the list
Parallel Scanning
All lists should take the same amount of time
Serial Self-Terminating
Stop once you reach the desired item
Serial Exhaustive
Do not make decision until the very end of the list
Cues provide..
Relations and Distinctions - Relations: more possible cues to get to cue - Distinctiveness: help distinguish correct item from competitors
Advantages of a network for memory
- total breakdown won't occur in face of damage to parts of information or misleading information - if information is missing, there is a "default value" - a best guess - Spontaneous generalization provides a stereotype -
Subliminal Perception (Implicit at encoding)
- Presented Pts with characters during a scan.. "which have you seen before, which do you like better?" - Pts responded that the one they liked better was the familiar item
Unaware Conditioning
subjects asked to say whether # on screen was same as previous.. square=noise, diamond=no noise - Only aware group showed skin response conditioning - Unaware group had STRONGER response in brain but in different location than aware group
Do savings represent implicit memory?
- Maybe no: you know you are being tested and are making a deliberate attempt to remember - maybe yes: still show savings even if you don't recognize the item
Schacter's claims regarding REPITITION priming and explict recall/recognition and the dissociations he used to support them
- LOP - Modality - Retention Interval - Interference - Statistical Independence
Implicit Memory
memory is encoded without conscious or deliberate recollection - fragment completion, read mirror-inverted script
Explicit Memory
Conscious recollection of recently presented inform - Free/cued recall, recognition
LOP dissociation
matters for explicit, not for priming ..word fragment completion showed that shallow processing was faster recall than deep
Modality dissociation
Changing from an auditory to visual (or visa versa) test decreased performance on word identification (priming) but had no effect on recognition (YES/NO -- explicit)
Retention Interval dissociation
Recognition (explicit) memory decreases while priming (like word fragment completion) stays the decay
Statistical Independence
Successful performance on implicit tests did not correlate with success or failure on explicit tests
Activation View of Schacter
Priming of pre-existing representations does NOT depend on elaborative processing - Under some conditions priming decays rapidly in both normal and amnesics **DOES NOT account for amnesics who show implicit memory for new information
Processing View of Schacter
There is an episodic basis (conceptually driven) of implicit memory (data driven) - observations of contextual sensitivity **LESS ABLE TO handle differences between priming of new & old representations in normal
Multiple Memory Systems View of Schacter
Nondecl (procedural/implicit) vs Declar (explic) - provides a straight foward account of normal perceptual-motor skill learning in amnesics who lack conscious recollection of prior episodes **DOES NOT account for the fact that amnesics are able to show implicit memory in situations where it is unlikely that performance is mediated by the procedural system can retrieve newly aquired facts with no explicit recollection; however, facts are usually considered declarative information
Microdistribution of Practice
Practice in small intervals with spaced presentation - better than massed practice for studying

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