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Psych 346 Exam 1


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Seven Recommendations to Improve Student Learning
1. Space learning over time 2. Interleave worked example solutions and problem-solving exercises 3. Combine graphics with verbal descriptions 4. Connect and integrate abstract and concrete representations of concepts 5. Use quizzing to promote learning 6. Allocate study time efficiently 7. Build explanations by asking deep questions
Surface Structure
Form of an idea that varies
Deep Structure
Form of an idea that does not change
Testing Effect
Taking a test on studied materials promotes remembering that material on a final test
Cue-Only Judgment
A technique used to break the illusion of knowing material or not. Has 3 critical features: 1. Test yourself after a meaningful delay (not right after studying has finished) 2. Should only have access to the cue, not the correct answer 3. Be able to judge how likely you are able to get the answer correct on a quiz
Deep Explanation
Explanations that appeal to casual mechanisms, planning, well-reasoned arguments, and logic
Spacing Effects Works for: and Not helpful for:
Works for: facts, vocab, language, math skills Not helpful for: perceptual categorization (grouping by appearences)
Desirable Difficulty
Conditions that make learning slower and more difficult..BUT..lead to better LTM - Desirable: increases processing that encourages comprehension and memory (deep processing) - Caveat: must be attainable
The ability to know what we know - Conditions that lead to fast/easy learning and immediate good performance usually lead to later poor memory AND generalization
Four Major Memory Systems
1. Episodic: free recall, cued recall, recognition 2. Semantic: word fluency, vocab, primed & unprimed categorization 3. Perceptual Representation (PRS): primed stem completion, primed fragment completion, primed identification of degraded words 4. Procedural: mirror reading, serial reaction time, rotor-pursuit
Four Kinds of Dissociations
1. Functional 2. Developmental 3. Pharmalogical 4. Brain-damage
Theories should have the final aim of giving an account of the facts
The process whereby a stimulus that initally evokes a response gradually is ignored after being repeated in the absence of a + or - outcome
Process that occurs when an independent stimulus increases the probabilty of a response
Long-term Potentiation
- Intense electrical stimulation of hippocampal cells caused stronger responses that lasted for great periods of time - Both pre- and post-syn. neurons needed to change the nature of the synapse so that in the future, a much weaker pre-synaptic stimulus will cause the post-syn neuron to fire
Sperling's experiments on iconic memory
1st. 12/16 letters had been perceieved but lost during the process of recall 2nd. Increase delay = decrease performance 3rd. Bright/dark field - bright declined rapidly, dark - subjects did much better Suggests: - Retina: influenced by brightness of stimulus presented - Brain: sensitive to patterns of brightness, therefore able to recognize shapes
Name as many items as you can.. Name as many items as you can in alphabetical order...
Short-term memory Working memory
Perceptual Representation System
Involved in representing 'the form or appearence' of stimuli before (or independent of) meaning - automatic changes in these systems as a result of prior exposure result in priming - Specific, 'presemantic'
"The day you nearly got ran over by a car"
Autobiogrpahical Memory
"Need to change the tires"
Prospective memory
Problems with the Modal Model
- STM and LTM are not separate things - Things do not need to go through STM to get into LTM
Learning/memory changes that do not require/involve conscious use of memory
Extreme Systems view
Different kinds of memory are independent from each other and depend on different brain regions
Extreme Processes view
One "memory"; difference is in how you access it
General Brain Processes
Frontal - retrieval of memory (attention general compared to back) Parietal - directing attention Temporal - store knowledge (vocabulary) Amygdala - emotion Hippocampus - episodic and learning semantic memories
Functional MRI
Good at spacial resolution - okay at temporal resolution
Event Related Potentials
(wearing net on head) -measuring changes of activity of scalp - Better to use than fmri for "when" something is happening (speed) - good temporal but poor spatial resolution
Flashbulb Memories
memory for circumstances in which one first learned of a very surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) event Conditions: surprise & high emotion/consequentiality - pattern of inconsistent memories accompanied by high confidence rating - Rate of forgetting is initially fast and slows over the long term (1 to 3 years)
Six Features of Flashbulb Memories
1. Where were you? 2. What were you doing? 3. Who told you/how did you find out? 4. How did you feel? 5. How did others feel? 6. What you did/what happened immediately afterwards?
Event Memories
Refers to memory about the facts of a flashbulb event.
Content Coding
What kind of information does it contain? Consequentiality vs Rehearsal
Were people better or worse at being consistent about their memories for their own emotional state than for other types of information?
Failed to find any correlations between consistency and emotionality
What kinds of information about event memory showed decline across the surveys? What did not decline?
-Semantic info (names of flights) -Episodic (order of events, where crash sites were)
Michael Moore Effect
The results indicated that those who saw the Moore film remember the location of the President better than those who did not.
What factors predicted the accuracy of event memory?
- Residency - Personal loss/inconvenience - Media attention - Ensuing conversation (last 2 are most important and also affect level of confidence for flashbulb memories)
Model for Getting Flashbulb Memory
Surprise (too high = amnesia, too low = inattention) --> Consequentiality (too low/not important to you = forgetting) --> Flashbulb Memory --> Rehearsal --> Accounts of Flashbulb Memory (will be consistent because you've told that story many times)
Strong links between:
- Consequentiality ratings - # of rehearsals - # of content categories (where/who,etc.) - Length
Personal Nature of Flashbulb Memories
They are not for the 'event itself' (unless you were involved), but for the 'circumstances' in which you learned the news
Interim Summary
- Major events lead to memories that at least feel special - But people can make big mistakes - And greater belief does not necessarily mean greater consistency 0 Degree of personal involvement may play a role - Role of rehearsal is not clear and may change over time
* Distance matters, but it isn't everything* People closer to World Train Centers: - Less activation in parahippocampal cortex (less detail?) - More activation in amygdala (especially left) *Generally left (arousal) hemisphere bias for autobiographical memory retrieval*
Serial Recall
Items must be recalled in the order in which they were presented
Evidence for 2 Separate ST and LT Systems
Rate, Familiarity, Distraction/divided attention, age all affect LTM (primacy effect)...but none of these affect STM (recency effect also ST deficits: left hemisphere LT defecit: temporal lopes and deeper structures like the hippocampus also.. STM: subjects rely more on sound of word than meaning LTM- meaning of words more depended on that acoustic characteristics
Maintenance Rehearsal
Might keep material available but won't enhance long term learning - also, pts with brain damage have poor STM, but LTM is unimpaired
3 Clusters of Evidence for the Phonological Loop
- acoustic/phonlogical similiarity effect: tendency for errors to be phonologically similiar: can be disrupted when one is asked to ignore irrelevant spoken material - longer words are harder to remember: b/c it takes longer time to say under breath - Immidiate recall of visually presented digits
Potential Purpose of Phonological Loop
A checking mechanism that is good at preserving the order of information - Good for counting, proofreading, and language aquisition
Deep Dyslexics
Cannot link the meaning of the word and the sound of the word - Great difficulty in reading words aloud and incapable of sound out nonwords - Hard time with abstract words
The PL as a language-acquisition device [developmental evidence]
Nonword repitition correlated highly with vocabulary in non-impaired kids increase vocab = increase repetition abilities = better name learners
Evidence that suggests that visual imagery was spatial
- Brooks task disrupted by blindfolded subjects pointing to moving sound source - Brooks task not disrupted by judging brightness
Evidence that visual imagery can exist separate from spatial:
Brain-damaged soilder could identify knife but reached in wrong direction for it
Evidence that spatial imagery can exist separate from visual:
- Subjects who have normal spatial skills (can do rotation tasks), could not form color images - could not answer the color of a banana
Evidence of imagery and long-term learning
1. Strong relationship between the imageability of a word and the ease with which it can be memorized 2. Imaging plays an important role in mneumonic strategies
Short-Term Store
Does not seem to be evidence for this..special mechanism or theoretical concept for explaining performance in seconds
Short-Term Memory
performance in seconds
-Uses subvocalization -Disrupted by articulatory suppression
-Auditory Imagery, but (probably) not subvocalizing per se
Spatial Storage
Right Premotor
Object Storage
Right DLPFC (more ventral than spatial regions)
Attention, STM, no long-term changes - enters into the visuospatial sketchpad
Can hold long term knowledge - Enters into the Language
Multi-dimensional code (Episodic Buffer)
Helps bind components together - Communication between short-term stores and long-term stores (mediated by central executive)
Patients with Parietal Damage
seem to have problems with verbal storage - cannot repeat exact sentence (missing auditory storage), but would be able to say something that means a similar thing
Pt. RE - Impaired phonological STM
- Normal VS and CE - cannot spell nonwords, relies on vision appearance for rhymes - HAD REPETITION DEFECITS (bad at repeating anything that requires phonological storage) - can understand long, ambiguous sentences - can detect errors in sentences
Familiarity Conflict
- positive: correct answer - negative/nonfamiliar: haven't seen before - negative/familiar: seen once before but not this time - negative/highgly familiar: seen twice before but not right answer - Negative/response conflict: both familiar and wanting to say yes because it had been a correct answer before

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