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October 9th


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Alfred Binet
-developed intelligence test to identify slow learners -IQ= MA/CA x100 (mental age divided by chronological age) -formula is flawed
a methological, step by step procedure for trying all possible alternatives to solve problems
Anticipatroy Nausea and Vomiting
-classically conditioned response -chemotherapy (UCS) -nausea (CR) -treatment room (CS) -nausea in respones to room (CR)
ANV Patients
dont respond well to anti-nausea drugs -responsive to some behavioral treatments
VERBAL SUBTEST!!! -concentration/attention; mathmatical ability *verbal test
Availability vs. Representative Heuristics
-decision making basedon th fact that things which are easily recalled semm to be typical -matchin an object to a concept w/out processing how likely the fit may be
B.F. Skinner
all behavior is explained by looking outside the individual; people tend to repeat behaviors which have positive consequences; decrease behaviors with neg. consequences
Benjamin Whorf
Linguistic relativity: one's language determines one's thoughts
a second language is learned best when younger at a "sensitive period" for language development
recognizing an object as a member of a group
used to reach a more complex sequence or chain of behaviors; reinforcing various simple behaviors separately and the linking them together
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
-organism learns to associate two stimuli -only produces a respones that originally was produced by other -example: dog/bell=salivation
Compensatory Decision Models vs. Noncompensatory Decision Models
-allows attractive attributes to compensate for unattractive attributes (getting home sooner but paying $40 more dollars) -don't allow some attributes to compensate for others (taking a layover flight instead of paying)
awareness of socially appropriate behavior, rules and roles *verbal subtest
mental representation of a category
Concepts and Categories
objects are classified on basis of their properties
Conditioned Response (CR)
response elicited by the CS (salivate to bell)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
originally neutral stimulus that elicits behavior after being paired with US (bell)
a kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and responses
Confirmation Bias
we seek to confirm what we already believe
Critical Periods in Language Development
-Case Study of Genie(like Nell): there does appera to be some sensitive/crucial period for language development skills
Decision making
evaluate alternatives and making choices among them
Digit Span
attention and rote memory (saying numbers and must repeat them back) *verbal test
Distraction by irrelevant info
people often get sidetracked and it detracts from effective problem solving
Expressive vs Receptive Language
-(speak) the ability to produce language -(understand)the ability to comprehend, process, and integrate meaning -Children usually have a greater capacity for receptive language
repeat the conditioned stimulus w/out the unconditioned stimulus over time and the conditioned response will disappear
Fixed interval
reinforcement occurs after a fixed amount of time has passed since the past reinforcer (5 mins)
Fixed ratio schedule
reinforcement after a fixed # of responses (every 4x)
how decisions or problem solving is posed may change the decision making task
Functional Fixedness
our tendency to rely on a function for an object and ignore other possible uses (hanger is for clothes, but can be used to get paper stuck in crack)
Gleason Study
language rules ar generative
Greeno's three types of problems
1.Problems of inducing structure: relationship between #,words,sym. 2.Problems of arrangement: anagrams;arrange part of problem 3.Problems of transformation:need to carryout a sequence in orderto achieve goal
shortcuts that guide us in decision making
Higher Order Conditioning
pairing a neutral stimulus w/ the conditioned stimulus will create another CS, although a weaker CR; more likely to show extinction i.e. food w/bell, bell w/ light
Hypothesis Testing
make and test an educated guess about a problem/solution
Inductive vs. Deductive
? vs. draw conclusion from set assumption; conclusion is true if premises is true
basic fund of info culturally sensitive (COD meant cash on demand, now means cause of death) *verbal subtest
the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error
combines verbal ability, problem solving skills and the ability to adapt and learn from life's everyday experiences -historically defined by how we "measure" it
Interactionist theory of language development
both biology and experience seem to make important contributions to language development
Intermittent Reinforcement
For a response to persist, it should be reinforced intermittently, making the response more difficult to extinquish
Interval Schedule
reinforcement after a certain amount of time has passed and the desired behavior occured
Langauge Acquisition Device
(Chomsky) -humans possess an inborn language mechanism -hardwired to sort input from 20-80 phonemes -lose between 4-12 months
system of symbols, sounds, meanings and rules of combination that allow for communication among humans
Law of Effect
a satisfying result strengthens/ increases a behavior
Learning Defined
any relative permanent change in behaviorthat occurs bc of behavior
Learning Schedules
-Continuous: reward/punish occurs each time behavior occurs -intermitent/partial: occurs when a response occurs only some of time
Learning Theory and Language
-language is based on modeling, imitations, exposure, reinforce Flaws: kidsacquire language w/ ease not broad variations, adult speech is sloppy; kids aquire rules/structure, kids spech is not a mechanical play back of adult speech
Mental Set
tendency to rely on a function for an object and ignore other possible uses (always going to mom for help)
Mental Simulation
mental rhearsal of the steps need to solve a problem (planning out day)
smalled unit of meaning in a language; phrases made up of morphemes
Negative Punishment`
something pleasant is removed (no TV, no dessert)
Non-verbal Communication
vocal intonation (stress, pitch, volume), body language, gestures, physical distance, facial expressions, touch
Observational Learning
believe there is a higher level cognitive process to how we learn, impact attitudes, beliefs and expectations; children learn and imitate behaviors
Operant Conditioning/ Instrumental Learning
behavior is dependent on its consequences
grammatical rules incorrectly generalized to "exception" cases
-smallest unit of sound which can be distinguished -change in sound can alter meaning initial phonemes: "c"at or "b"at middle phonemes: b"i"t or b"a"t
Positive Punishment
something unpleasant occurs (spanked, mouth washed w/ soap)
Primary Reinforcements
satisfy biological needs: food, water, sex
Problem Solving
transform one situation into another to meet goal; active efforts to achieve goal
we rate things based on their similarity to models which represent the main characteristic of group
are inherently unpleasant and decrease the liklihood of response
Ratio Schedules
deliver the reinforcement after a certain fixed number of responses
the process by which we generate and evaluate arguments
concepts are defined by a prototype or the most typical member of a "class" Is a sparrow a bird? Is a penguin a bird? Is a bat a bird?
Secondary Reinforcements
satisfy through association with primary reinforcements: money, praise, grades
sutdy of meaning of words, combinations, sentences
reinforcing behavioral tendenceies in a desired direction; uses successive approximation; reinforce responses that are incresingly similar to the desired behavior
verbal concept formation, level of abstraction *verbal subtest
Spontaneous Recovery
after a stimulus has been extinguished it may spontaneously reappear after the passage of time w/ exposure to conditioned stimulus
Stages in Language Development
1.crying 2.cooing (vowel noises) 3.babbling (constant/vowel: ba ba) 4.first words 5. holophrases (simple words convey meaning) overextension (all 4 legged animals are doggy) 5. telegraphic speech ("content" word sentencing)
Stanford Binet and Weschler
-intelligence tests still used today -developed new test with norms for all age groups based on a standard distribution
Stimulus Discrimination
one learns to realize the difference between similar stimuli (alarm clock vs. fire alarm)
Stimulus Generalization
after a stimulus becomes a CS for some response, other similar stimuli may produce the same reaction
Surface vs. deep structure
particular words used vs. notion of nouns, verbs, commands -Chomsky believes languages differ only in surface structur
form of deductive reasoning consists of 2 premises and a conclusion Premise: All A and B Premise: C is an A Therefore: C is a B
structure of language; rules of order and function
The Flynn Affect
James Flynn found that from one generation to the next there have been steady gains in IQ scores cross culturally Hypothesis: more time in school, better educated parents, nutrition, broader exposure to media
studied cats
an extension of perception and memory; mental representation are formed, recalled, and manipulated
Three Types of Consequences
1)Neutral: not more or less likely to see behavior change 2)Reinforcement: anything which makes a response more likely to occur 3)Punishment: anything which makes a response less likely to occur
Uncondition Response (UR)
response which is automatically produced (salivate)
Unconditional Stimulus (US)
elicitsthe unconditioned response (food)
Unnecessary Constraints
we put restrictions on our problem solving which don't exist
Variable interval
reinforcement occurs if a variable amount of time has passed since the previous reinforcer (on average 5 min, could be 3 or 7)
Variable ratio schedule
reinforcement after some average number of responses (on average 7)
breadth of conecpts, ideas, ad experiences -correlated with overall IQ *verbal subtest
Wechsler Intelligence Tests:
WPPSI(preschool) WISC(children) WAIS(adults) -results in a verbal, perofmace and full scall IQ score -based on norms (100 mean, range 85-115)
When to reinforce or punish?
if it occurs immediately after a behavior it has the strongest effect

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