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psych ch. 13


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Emotions are a mix of
physiological activation (bodily response), expressive behaviors (actions), and conscious experience (thoughts and feelings)
James-Lange theory
Feeling of fear is experienced after you are away of a physiological response. tiger > pounding heart > fear
Cannon-Bard Theory
Physiological arousal and our emotional experience occur simultaneously. One does not cause the other.
Schacter's Two-Factor Theory
Emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal & a cognitive label. A conscious interpretation of the arousal is needed to experience emotion. Body > awareness of body response > emotion
Spillover effect
Sometimes our arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event.
Emotional Contagion
Therapists "catch" clients' feelings, parents communicate their feelings to their children & vice versa, and friends resonate to each other's moods. Emotions are caught as a result of conscious reasoning, imagination, and analysis.
We catch emotions by unconsciously engaging in _____.
Motor mimicry. (Automatically imitate other people's facial expressions, gestures, and postures. We then come to feel as well as look as others do.) (College students were able to mimcry within 21 miliseconds)
Two Dimensions of Emotion
Pleasant versus Unpleasant, Low versus high arousal
An object's quality of attractiveness to the individual: positive emotions are attractive and negative ones are not.
Agrees with Schacter. First step in an emotional sequence is cognitive appraisal of the situation. Brain processes info without our conscious awareness. Some emotions don't requre conscious thinking.
Highly emotional people:
Personalize events as being somehow directed at them and they generalize their experiences by blowing single incidents out of proportion.
Our ____ nervous system controls our arousal
Difficult tasks: ____, easy tasks: ____
low level of arousal, high level of arousal
Plays an important role in our ability to associate emotions with certain situations
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)
Measures autonomic activation. Assesses the skin's electrical conductivity when sweat gland activity nicreases. High conductance (sweating) indicated sympathetic nervous system arousal. Low conductance = parasympathetic activity
Polygraph (lie detector)
Measures autonomic fluctuations that accompany emotion (respiration, heart rate, perspiration changes, GSR) while a person is questioned
How they measure the polygraph:
If the relevant question has a physical arousal larger than the control question, then you are lieing.
Paul Ekman and Maureen O'Sullivan
With experience and training, people can detect liars. Intuition alone, not very accurate. 67-86% accurate.
Facial Feedback hypothesis
James Laird and others: Facial muscles send signals to the brain that help it recognize the emotion
Paul Ekman and Carrol Izard
Say that there are a limited number of basic emotions
Basic emotions
Emotions that are found in all cultures, that are reflected in the same facial expressions across cultures, and that emerge in children according to their biological timetable
Suggested considering emotions as families. Ex: Anger family = annoyed, irritated, angry, livid, enraged
Ekman and Frieson
Claim that there are subtle distinctions in the facial expression of a single emotion that convey its intensity
Facial expressions of emotions develop according to _____
a biological timetable of maturation (like motor skills of crawling and walking)
Charles Darwin
First to study the relationship between emotions and facial expressions. Believed that the facial expression of emotion was an aid to survival because it enable people to communicate their internal states and react to emergencies before they developed lan
Found that 3 yr old girls (not boys) smiled even when they were given an unattractive present. They had already learned a display rule and signaled an emotion that they very likely did not feel.
Found that among first to third graders, girls were better able to hide disappointment than boys were. Not only can emotions be displayed but not felt, they can also be felt but not displayed.
Sylvan Tomkins
Claimed that the facial expression itself triggers both the physiological arousal and the conscious feeling associated with the emotion
Izard (concerning facial-feedback hypothesis)
Believes that learning to self-regultae emotional expression can help in controlling emotions
David Buss
Reported that women are far more likely to feel anger when their partner is sexually aggressive, men experience greater anger than women when their partner withholds sex
How is fear adaptive/useful?
An alarm system that prepares our bodies
How is fear learned?
Conditioning and observation
Key brain structure of fear?
Chronic hostility
linked to heart disease. controlled expressions of anger are more adaptive than either hostile outbursts or pent-up angry feelings
Catharsis Hypothesis?
Idea that we reduce anger by releasing it through aggressive action or fantasy. This works only if: your retaliation is directed against the provoker, is justifiable, and your target is not intimidating.
Expressing anger
can be temporarily calming if it does not leave us feeling guilty or anxious. Venting angry feelings often magnifies the underlying hostility or serves to be habit forming. Expressive anger can lead to more anger
How should we handle anger?
Waiting, Avoid being chronically angry over every little annoynce, Do not sulk and continue to think about your reasons for being angry, don't keep all your anger in only to explode at a tiny provocation
How can you calm yourself from anger?
Exercising, hobbies, and confiding feelings to friends
Subjective well-being
Usually assessed as either feelings of happiness or as a sense of satisfaction in life. Measure subjective well-being are often used alone with objective measures of well-being to evaluate quality of life
Happiness is ___ to our prior subjective experiences
Relative Deprivation Principle
We are unhappy if we believe we are worse off than others with whom we compare ourselves
A social phenomenon of laughter
Has been observed in other primates and even lab rats. Often not a reaction to humor or jokes. Occurs during natural pauses in speech 99% of the time. Speakers laugh more than listeneres. Females laugh more than males, especially true when listener is a m
Laughter first appears at
2-3 months of age

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