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Occupational strategies


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religious movement-16 century-resulted in the formation of various Protestant churches. Monasteries were closed-nursing care suffered; almost caused total disappearance of male nurses
Order of the deaconesses
Earliest record of christian nursing. 1st public health nursing organization
Sisters of Mercy
Roman Catholic society formed by Catherine McAuley in Dublin. Sisters nursed victims of cholera epidemic in 1832.
Catherine McAuley
formed sisters of mercy
Sisters of charity
1633 founded by St Vincent de Paul. Attendeed to ill in asylums and poor houses.
Louise de Gras
sisters of charity; first to establish the first nursing educational program
Benedictine order
St Benedict; located 1/2 way between Rome and Naples. Workers were sent throughout Europe, raising standards of education and culture and providing better care for the sick and poor. (Monks)Bathing was stressed as treatment for the sick.
Crimean War
English casualties were housed in a filthy barracks with no beds, furniture, basins, soap, towels ro eating utensils. Death rate= 60%; social conscience of England called for reform; Nightingale cleaned up hospitals- mortality rate decreased to 1%
American Civil War
(1861-1865) Clara Barton and Harriet Tubman tended ot the soldiers.
American Red Cross
Clara Barton 1882
Dorothea Dix
Appointed to superintend new nurses; recruited plain looking women over 35 who wore gray, brown aor black dresses with no bows and curls, jewelry, or hoop skirts, good moral and common sense
World War 1
Increased demand for nurses. Nurses needed a certificaiton of moral character and professional qualification by their superintendent of nurses and they were unmarried. Development of military hospitals provided medical and surgical experience to nursing students
World War II
Students had to be between 17-35 in good health, and with a good academic record. Married women and other who could work only part-time became acceptable; full commission status was granted iin the military to nurses
influx added diversity
Women's movement
uneasy alliance between nursing and the women's movement because the women's movement has been directed toward opening up nontraditional fields of study/work for women
Lavinia Dock
active feminist; womens movement; uneasy alliance between nursing and the women's movement because the women's movement has been directed toward opening up nontraditional fields of study/work for women and encounraging them to leave the nursing field
Nurse Cadet Corp
1943 established to address the nursing shortage during WWII
Bolton Act of 1943
1st federal program to subsidize nursing education for school and student. Students committed to engage in essential military or civilian nursing for the duration of the war as payment of their tuition
Nursing training Act of 1964
purpose of the law was to increase the number of nurses through financial assistance to nursing schools, students, and graduates taking higher ed courses. Ensures better schools of nursing, carefully selected students and high standard of teaching and better health care for people
Clara Barton
American Red Cross; school teacher who volunteered as a nurse and directed relief operations during the civil war
Dorthea Dix
1802-1887; conditions of the mentally ill; Her descriptive reports and careful documentation eventually resulted in the construction of state psychiatric institutions; care was improved
Virginia Henderson
theorist who taught the patient is a person who requires help toward independence
Mary Mahoney
First trained black nurse. Trained at the New England Hospital for women and children
Mildred Montag
Community college education for nursing 1959
Florence Nightingale
Established the nightingale trainign school for nurses at St. Thomas' hospital in london 1860
Melinda Ann Richards
America's first trained nurse. She spent her career moving from hospital to hospital in what seemed to have been an improvement campaign; she was a key figure in the development of nursing education
Isabel Hampton Robb
Made radical changes to nursing education. She cut down student's workday to 10 hr and eliminated free private duty services
Lillian Ward
Community health nursing; established the Henry Street Settlement with Mary Brewster and Lavinia Dock. She also introduced school nursing for children in school settings
Margaret Sanger
She and her sister opened the first birth control clinic in America in Brooklyn. She battled for free dissemination of birth control information for decades
Goldmark Report 1923
stated that lowering education standards endangers public safety; state legislation should be enacted to define and license a subsidiary grade of nurses; bedside nursing care and health teaching fro preventive care could be combined in one generalized service
Brown Report 4948
Nursing for the future
Ester Lucile Brown found that nursing education was not professsional; many diploma shcools still operated for the staffing of the hospital
Community College Education for nursing 1959
Dr Mildred Montag; establishment for a 2 yr program leading to an associate degree in nursing. Development of the nursing technician, one with semiprofessional preparation and whose functions are predominantly technical
Study of Credentialing in Nursing
1979- precipitated by disagreement/confusion between ANA and NLN on their respective roles in credentialing nurses. Recommendations include position statements concerning definitions of nursing. Entry into practice standards, control and cost of credentialing, accountability and competence, credentialing definitions, registration, certificaiton, education degrees, accreditation, charter
National commission on Nursing Study 1983
Focuses on nurses and physicians participating in a collaborative relationship in which nurses are included in clinical decision making and have authority and responsibility for their own practice. Establishment of salaries, benefits and educaitonal opportunities for nurses, commensurate with their responsibilities as professionals
Health Proffessions Education
Schools in Service to the Nation 1993- declared that the education and training of health professions were not adequate to meet the health care needs of Americans;
6 strategies include: develop programs of various levels of nursing educaiton 2) involve faculty in more direct patient care/nursing practice 3) focus on care of chronic patient populations 4) redirect focus to community based patients 5) continue to develop graduate-level clinical training programs 6) strategic planning within each nursing school and program
American Nursing Association; membership open to rn's with a current valid license. Purpose include: improvement of health standards and availability of health care to all people. Foster high standards of nursing; stimulate and promote the professional development of nurses (American Journal of Nursing)
Goals of ANA
1)Assure that the rn is an essential provider in all practice settings through educaiton, research, collective bargaining, workplace advocacy, legislation and regulation
2) Collectively and collaboratively advocate for access to comprehensive quality care for all people
3) Multipurpose organizations will continue to be strong and efective at the state, national and international level
International council of Nurses
the ANA and CNA are members
NLN: National League of Nursing
nurses and lay people concerned wiht improving nursing education, service and the devivery of health care in the US. Official crediting agency
aan : American Academy of Nursing
focuses on standards of health care, nurses' professional development and economic and general welfare of nurses. Optimize the well being of the American people and the world in general
Natonal black Nurses' Association
believe that black Americans and other minority groups are by design excluded from the meansto achieve access to the health mainstream of America. Pushed fro status of the black community
Philippine Nurses Associatio of America
Puupose is to uphold the image and faster the welfare of Filipino nurses as a professional group
Clinical specialty organization
Each nurse has need for at least two organizations, one that protects his/her broad professioanl interests and a second to maintain a cutting-edge on practice.
Operating Room nurses
voluntary organizations of RNs with a universal interest in the care of the surgical patient. An organization of perioperative nurses that unites its members by providing education, representation and standard for quality patient care
Industrial Nurses
(AAOHN) American Association of Occupational Health Nurses is a professional association fro RNs who provide on-the-job health care for the nation's workers. Promotes excellence in achieving workers health and saftey through education and research. Influencing legistaltion and regulatory issues that have an impact on health and safety
Professional organization of professional nurses in the US that focuses on standards of health care, nurses' professional development and economic and general welfare of nurses. Vision is to transform health care so as to optimize the well-being of the American people and the world in general
National Council of State Board of Nursing
Members consis of 61 boards of nursing. Publishes a quarterly newsletter, "Issues" and offers a series of video tapes on the NCLEX. Develops the NCLEX exam to test the entry-level competence of candidates for nursing licensure; regulates entry to nursing practice, continuing safe practice, and nursing and education programs.

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