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Microbiology 1


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What did Robert Hook do?
He describe the structures of molds.
What did Antoni van Leeuwenhoek do?
He used microscopes to see bacteria.
What did Pasteur do?
He developed the swan-neck flask, disproved spontaneous generation, and developed the germ theory of disease.
What did Robert Koch do?
Identified disease causing organism using pure cultures and proved the Germ Theory of Disease.
What are Koch's Postulates?
1. Microbe present in diseased animal and not present in healthy animal. 2. Transfering the microbe to a healthy animal will cause the disease. 3. Isolate the microbe from the diseased animal.
What does one use to classify microbes?
Linnaean hiearachial sequence or taxonomy
Name the Linnaean hierarchial sequence.
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus
What are classification of microbes by structure?
Eukaryotes, prokaryotes, virus
Name the characteristics of eukaryotes.
-genetic elements located in nucleus -include unicellular algae, fungi, and protozoa -50-100 micrometers in diameter
Name the characteristics of prokaryotes.
-genetic elements naked in cytoplasm -include eubacteria and archaea -0.5-10 micrometers in diameter
Name the characteristics of viruses.
not cells, carry genetic elements warp in protein coat, unable to replicate by itself, uses the infected host to survive and reproduce, 20-250 nanometers in diameter
What are the characteristics of living systems
Metabolism, reproduction, differentiation, communication, movement, evolution/adaption
What is metabolism?
Uptake of chemicals form the environment, their transformation within cell, and elimination of wates into the environment. Open system
What is reproduction (growth)?
Chemicals formt he environment are turned into new cells unter the direction of preexisting cells.
What is differentiation?
Formation of a new cell sturecture such as a spore, usu as part of a cellular life cycle
What is communication?
Cells communicate or interact primarily by means of chemicals that are released or taken up.
What is movement?
capable of self propulsion
What is evolution/adaption?
Cells evolve to dispaly new biological properties.
Name domains of the phylogenetic tree.
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Name the species of Bacteria.
Hyperthermophiles, chloroplast, cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, mitochondrion, gram-positive bacteria
Name the species in Archaea.
Hyperthermophiles, methanogens, extreme halophiles.
Name the species in Eukarya
Slime molds, animals, fungi, plants, flagellates, giardia
What is used to construct the Phylogenetic tree?
ribosomal RNA
Name the parts of a microscope.
Ocular, objective, stage, condenser, focusing knob, light source
Name the types of microscopes available.
Light, election, special.
What are the characteristics of a light microscope.
Light rays penetrate cells, resolution 0.2 micrometer or above, mag 10x to 1500x
What are the characteristics of a electron microscope?
beam of electrons, weak penetration, resolution 0.1 nanometers, mag over 20,000,000x for TEM and 100,000 for SEM
What are the four types of light microscope?
Bright field, phase contrast, dark field, fluorescence
What are the characteristics of a bright field?
see the constrast through light scattered among objects, good for pigmented organism or stain cells, limited contrast
What are the characteristics of a phase contrast?
special condenser throw the light out of phase and increase the difference among light refraction, inc the contrast of the object and background
What are the characteristics of a dark field?
Special condenser redirects the light and light the object from an angle, higher contrast and resolution, good for wet mount and unstained cells
What are the characteristics of a fluorescence light microscope?
use UV light to excite fluorescent compounds, good for naturally fluorescent materials or cells, stained wiht fluorescent dye.
Name the type of electron microscopes.
Transmission and scanning.
What are the characteristics of transmission electron microscope?
mag 20,000,000x, 2-D images, electron transmited through specimens, use very thing section of cells, cells need to be stained with metals, useful for visualizing internal cell structure
What are the characteristics of a scanning electron microscope?
100,000x, 3-D images, high field depth, cells need to be coated by heavy metals (gold), useful for visualizing cell surface and cell interaction
Name the special microscopes.
Differential Interferance Contrast, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Confocal Scanning Laser Mic (CSLM)
What are the characteristics of Interferance Contrast?
like phase-contrast but uses 2 beams, good for cell structures
What are the characteristics of Atomic Force Microscope?
use a probe to scan and recore the atomic forces through the surface of cells, digital info is transformed into image by computer, easy preparation work on live and wet specimens, observe cell surface
What the characteristics of confocal scanning laser mic?
use laser light to illiminate one layer of a specimen at a time, cells often stained with fluorescent dye, good for thick samples

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