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Psychology Exam 1


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Love of data. Derived principles from careful observationl knowledge NOT preexisting.
Philosopher. Dissected animals and concluded that the fluid in the brains cavities contained animal spirits "nerves"
Concerning Human Understand, essay took 20 years. Argued that mind at birth is blank slate on which experience writes.
View that knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation. Locke helped form this.
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
Natural Selection
Inherited traits contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Basic Approach to Psychology
Basic research- pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders
Developmental Psychology
basic research that deals with our changing abilities from womb to tomb. Physical, social, emotional change
Social Psychology
basic research that explores how we view and affect one another. Interaction with others
For an A_DO...
Actively process & elaborate on info Distribute your study time Overlearn information
Socrates student. Concluded mind is separable from body and continues after body dies. Knowledge is born with.
Wilhelm Wundt
Experimented lag between hearing and doing. (ball experiment) "atoms of the mind" First experiment
Francis Bacon
Human mind and it's failings. Anticipated our minds hunger for patterns
early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Science of behavior and mental process
Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Treatment of emotional and behavioral problems
Applied approach to Psychology
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
biological, neurological process
Industrial-Organizational Psychology
work behavior, productivity, satisfaction
Cognitive Psychology
how we perceive, think, and solve problems
Mental environment
knowlede, personality, skills attitudes, perception, abilities beliefs, motivations, goals
physical relationships
inpute-->physical enviorment-->result
Nature vs. Nurture
human traits develop through experience or do we come equipped with them?
brain plasticity
brain's ability to modify itself after some types of damage
evolutionary psychology
study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
family, adoption, twin studies
93-97. check notes
person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes.
gender roles
set of expected behaviors for males and for females
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female
social learning theory
theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory
theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
inborn (rooting) reflexes
baby's tendency, when touched on cheek, to turn toward the touch, open mouth, and search for NIPPLE!!
decrease in responding with repeated stimulation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
Piaget's stages of development
sensorimoter (0-2) Preoperational (2-6) Concrete operational (7-11) Formal operational (12-present)
Piaget and theory
Biologist, observant father, descriptive. "children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world" (schemas)
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
principle that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
in Piaget's theory, the pre-operational child's difficulty taking another's points of view
secure attachment
bold, outgoing. (more outgoing monkey)
insecure attachment
clingy and uncommunicative (unresponsive monkey)
determinants of attachment
Physical contact familiarity Parental responsiveness previous attachment
Harlow monkey studies
Monkeys preferred that soft cloth but still took milk from the other fake monkey
process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
characteristics of a good daycare
low child to caregiver ration promotes social and cog. development cheerful verbally stimulating safe familiar adult caregiver
developing self-concept
a sense of one's identity and personal worth
Authoritarian parents
impose rules and expect ovedience
Permissive parents
submit to their children's desires, make few demands and use little punishment
Authoritative parents
both demanding and responsive. set rules and explains why
adolescent development
growth, puberty, blah, etc.
Piaget and moral reasoning
believed children's moral judgments build on their cognitive development.
Kohlberg's Theory of moral reasoning
1)Preconventional morality- (0-9), obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards 2)conventional morality- (early adolescence) morality usually evolves to a more conventional level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules 3)Postconventional morality- affirms people's agreed-ipon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles
Stages of psychosocial development
look at page 166.
the time of natural cessation of menstruation. women's ability to reproduce declines. 1 POINT FOR THE GUYS
Alzheimer's disease
progressive and irreversible brain disorder. causes gradual deterioaration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills. increases with age
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly. decreases with age
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
Schacter's Theory of Emotion
"two-factor theory" that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
rape myth
the idea that some women invite or enjoy rape and get "swept away" while being "taken"
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
romantic love
passionate love and companionate love
passionate love
aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usualy present at the beginning of love relationship
companionate love
deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

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