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TExES Study Guide Terms

Terms from texes study guide


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Philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do can and should be regarded as behaviors.
Wealth in the from of property or money, used or accumulated in a business by a person, partnership, or corporation.
Harriet Tubman
1820-1913. African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the Civil War. Made thirteen missions and rescued over 300 slaves via the Underground Railroad.
John D. Rockefeller
1839-1937. American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry. Richest person in history.
The amount of money or goods asked for or given in exchange for something else.
Trail of Tears
Illegal removal of Native Americans from lands in the east, primarily Georgia, for lands in the west.
Opportunity Cost
cost in terms of forgone alternatives
A condition or situation in which something is required.
A persistent increase in the level of consumer prices or a persistent decline in the purchasing power of money, caused by an increase in available currency and credit beyond the proportion of available goods and sources.
Panama Canal
Shipping canal built by the U.S from 1904-1914 across the Isthmus of Panama.
To desire greatly; wish for
Andrew Carnegie
1835-1919. American philanthropist, businessman, and industrialist. Regarded as the second richest person in history.
Adams-Onis Treaty
1819. Settled land dispute between Spain and United States as a result of tensions brought on by weakening Spanish power in teh New World. U.S. gained Florida in exchange for $5 million and renounced any claims on Texas and settled boundary between two countries to the Pacific Ocean.
Consumer Price Index
An index of prices used to measure the change in the cost of basic goods and services in comparison with a fixed base period.
An organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on common policy for the sale of petroleum.
The amount at which a producer is willing and able to produce.
Something owned; a possession
1475-1564. Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. Created David, pintings on Sistine Chapel, designed the dome on St. Peter's Basilica.
Amount paid or required in payment for a purchase.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Strengthened the Act of 1793 by fining federal marshals $1,000 for not arresting fugitive slaves. Part of Compromise of 1850.
Exchange Rate
The charge for exchanging currency of one country for currency of another.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1712-1778. Major philosopher, literary figure, and composer of the Enlightenment era whose political philosophy influenced the French Revolution, development of liberal and socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. Published "The Social Contract" in 1762, one of the most influential works on political philosophy in the Western tradition.
Financial institution that acts as a payment agent for customers, and borrows and lends money.
Marco Polo
1254-1324. Venetian traveler. One of first Westerners to travel Silk Road. His "Travels of Marco Polo" was the only account of the Far East available to Europeans until the 17th century.
16th century movement in Western Europe that aimed at reforming some doctrines and practices of teh Roman Catholic Churchand resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Churches
Ferdinand Magellan
1480-1521. Portugese navigator. Sailed under the service of the Spanish Crown and tried to find a route to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. Killed in a battle in the Philippines, but this voyage ended up being the first successful circumnavigation of the earth, ending in 1522.
Rivalry between two or more businesses striving for the same customer or market.
Economic system in which property and wealth distribution are subject to control by the community, either directly or indirectly (by the govt.)
Federal Reserve
The central bank of the U.S. Incorporates 12 Federal Reserve branch banks and all national banks and stated charted commercial banks as well as some trust companies.
Native American culture flourishing in southern Colorado and Utah and Northern New Mexico and Arizona from about 100 AD. Descendents include the present-day Pueblo people. Culture includes Basket Maker phase, and later marked by creation of cliff dwellings and ecpert artisanship.
Thomas Jefferson
1743-1826. Third President of United States. Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Promoted ideals of republicanism in the United States.
Mound Builders
Tribes of North America who built extensive mounds of dirt, especially in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys.
Insufficiency of amount or supply; shortage
Harriet Beecher Stowe
1811-1896. American author and abolitionist. Author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin" (1852), which advanced the cause of abolition.
The business of buying and selling commodities; commerce
Paleolithic Era
Of or relating to the cultural period of the Stone Age about 750,000 years ago until the beginning of the Mesolithic Age, about 15,000 years ago. Also known as the Old Stone Age.
Economic system in which means of production are privately owned. Operates for profit, and outcomes are determined through operation of a market economy.
Gross Domestic Product
The total market value of all of the goods and services produced within the borders of a nation during a specified period.
Vladimir Lenin
1870-1924. First de facto leader of the Soviet Union. Main leader of the October Revolution. Contributions to Marxist theory are known as Leninism.
John Locke
1632-1704. English philosopher. Instrumental in influencing the Enlightenment era. Formulated the "blank slate" theory, stating that people are born without innate ideas. Influenced social contract theory, and one of first to concieve of identity and "the self".
Something used for support or help
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Langston Hughes
1902-1967. Harlem Renaissance author. Wrote "Not Without Laughter" (1930).
The act or process of producing.
A member of a group of Eskimoan peoples inhabiting the Arctic from northern Alaska eastward to eastern Greenland.
Scientific study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of humans.
Cognitive Development
Concerns the emergence and construction af schemata in developmental stages. Considered "constructivist" in that it asserts that we construct our cognitive abilities through self-motivated action in the world.
Harlem Renaissance
Literary and intellectual flowering in the 1920s and 1930s.
Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of a classless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production.
European Union
Economic and political union established in 1993 after Maastricht Treaty by members of the European Community, which forms its core.
Labor Unions
Organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labor.
United Nations
Established in 1945 to promote peace, security and economic development.
Study dealing with mental processes and behavior.
Neolithic Era
Of or relating to the Stone Age beginning around 10,000 B.C. in the MIddle East and later elsewhere. Characterized by the development of agriculture and polished stone implements.
World Trade Organization
Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly.
Countee Cullen
1903-1946. American romantic poet closely associated with the Harlem Renaissance.
An extended decline in general business activity, typically three consecutive quarters of falling real gross national product.
The business of buying and selling a specified commodity.
The act or process of consuming.
18th century philosophical movement that focused on the rights of the people and intended to detract from the rights of the government.
Gross National Product
The total market value of all of the goods and services produced by a nation during a specified period.
Systematic study of past human life and culture by the recovery of and examination of remaining material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery.
War of 1812
1812-1814. Fought between U.S. and England primarily over trade restrictions by England on the U.S with France.
Joseph Stalin
1878-1953. Leader of Soviet Union. Established command economy. Launched Great Purge in the late 1930's, a major political repression.
Zora Neal Hurston
1891-1960. American folklorist. Author of 1937 novel "Their Eyes Were Watching God". Associated with Harlem Renaissance
John Calvin
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
Unitary System
Political system in which the three organs of state are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1793
Made it a federal crime to assist an escaping slave, and established the legal mechanism in which a slave could be legally returned to their owners.

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