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My SS Midyear Flash Cards


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NW ordinance of 1787
congress's ordinance to govern the land west of the app. mtns and east of the miss. river had to have 60,000 people in an area to start a state, the states were state governing but still had the civil rights that people living in the colonies had
Articles of Confederation
first government of the u.s. unsuccessufl but a start in the right direction, could only ask for money and soldeirs from the states and not demand, also needed to pay off money from the war and started printing their own money and caused inflation
Battle of Yorktown
general cornwallis came in and tried to take out the cont. army and then the french cornered them from behind andn the army attacked them from land
Battle of Saratoga
got assistance from the french, they took out the british because they did not know that they were going to have to go through lakes and rivers
Battle of Bunkerhill
series of battle around boston, colonists won two battles, and on one of them the ammo arrived from fort tinconderoga and forced the brits to retreat out of the area
Fort Ticonderoga
famous battle in upstate new york, important to the colonists because they got allsorts of ammo and weapons from the siezed fort, led by Ethan Allen a sneak attack
Lexington and Concord
where we live, the first battle of the american revolution, great success, used guerrila warfare
Benedict Arnold
American General that was bribed into joining forces with the brits, gave away info to them
General Howe
commanding general of the british army during the american rev
The Decleration of Independence
jefferson was apointed to do this, his job was to get people to support independence from the king of england
Thomas Paine
published a pamphlet called common sense in january of 1776, which urged for a revolution against britain he said "everything that is rught or reasonable pleads for seperation... 'TIS TIME TO PART!"
British Army
-very strong compared to the continental army, outnumbered them 3-1 at certain points- main general was General Howe
Patriots Vs. Loyalists
patriots- wanted a revolution from britain loyalists- sided with the british
The Continental army
an army of colonists that was set up in order to fight the British, it was led by George Washington, small but successful compared to the british army
Shot Heard Around The World
the battle of con. and lex.
First Continental Congress
started in 1774 when delegages from all the colonies gatherd in phili to discuss their thoughts about loyalty to the brits
Intolerable Acts
laws that were established to punish the massachussets residents, also used it to enforce control over colonies
Boston Tea Party
a boycott that the colonists in MA started against tea imported into boston harbor, they revolted and dumped 900,000 lbs of tea into the harbor
Boston Massacre
two bostonians died, a way for the colonists to show that the brits shouldnt be there
Sons of Liberty
John Adams, Samue Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington
Townshend Acts
law made by parliament of britain, placed taxes on any goods that were imported tothe colonies
New Spain
- Was the Province around Mexico and also into the southern United States. Colonists took charge and created a local government since they were so far away from their homeland.
New Netherlands
- The Dutch had ownership to this land, NYC prior to the English and gave it up with out even a battle. This was huge because now NYC is the biggest city in America.
New France
- Was the province west of the 13 colonies, this land was later bought by the United States from France, and later expanded on this land.
Treaty of Paris
- Agreement signed by Great Britain and the U.S. granting the U.S. independence, territory and fishing rights
Ben Franklin
was on the committee to draft Declaration of Independence and was a diplomat to France.
French and Indian War
- A territorial conflict between France and Great Britain over Native American lands in which France lost most of its North American holdings
George Washington
First president of the United States and the commander of the continental army
William Penn
Was a peaceful Quaker, that started the state of Pennsylvania where he hoped that people could live together peacefully even though they were from different nations and of different nationalities.
George Whitefield
preached to congregations in the large settlements from Georgia to New England.
- Were Protestants that wanted to purify the church of England and of all of the Catholic traditions
the assembly of representatives in colonial Virginia.
- Legal document giving certain rights to a person or company
Columbian Exchange
- Transfer of people, ideas, plants, animals, and diseases among the Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa; initiated by Columbus’s voyages
Mayflower Compact
Document that established Plymouth Colony as a self-governing colony based on the majority rule of male church members
- Radical English Puritans who broke with the Church of England
-Settlers that came to the Americas in search of religious freedom, made friendships with the Native Americans, and started the practice of “Thanksgiving”
Protestant Reformation
Religious upheaval in Europe begun by Martin Luther in 1517 to protest corruption in the Roman Catholic Church
Shay's Rebellion
after the american revolution the farmers were hit the hardest, daniel shay led a rebeillion and attacked an arsenal, by doing this it showed the country that the AOC could not handle civil unrest
Alexander Hamilton
30 year old lawyer from new york, helped write the constitution, elitest, thought that the gov't should be strong and natural
James Madison
he was a delegate from virginia, helped write the constitution, came up with the virginia plan, 4th pres. of the us
The VA Plan
edmund randolph and james madison came up with it, designed to shift power away from states and to central gov't, he wanted a legislative house that had representation based on population
The NJ Plan
Devised by William Paterson, proposed that every state gets one vote in the legislature and the reps would be elected by state gov'ts, a three house system
House of Reps
the house in the legislature that representation is based on population size.
The Senate
The part of the legislature where each state has equal representation no matter how big the state is
The Great Compromise
AKA the CT plan, incorporated both the VA plan and the NJ plan, two houses, the house of reps, and the senate
The 3/5ths compromise
decided that slaves count as 3/5 of a person for their representation in the house of reps
Slave Trade Compromise
Stated that slave states could continue slavery but must end the slave trade in 20 years
For Knox, Kentuky
vault where all of the gold that the u.s used to back the money was kept
part before the constitution is an overview of what the constitution states
parts of the constitution that are added or deleted that take place after the original signing
The legislative part of the federal gov't, comprised of the house of representatives and the senate
Electoral College
system that we use to vote for the president, each state gets a certain amount of votes based on their population, each congressmen and sentator votes based on how on their state voted
a proposed law that someone in the cong. comes up with then it goes to the other house and needs a majority, then goes to the pres. and if he vetos it then the legislature needs a 2/3 majority vote
system of govt where power is devided among different parts of the govt, also the central govt that all the state and local gov'ts base themselves off of
William Randolph Hearst
editor from the NY journal , used yellow journalism, which over dramatized the war to sell more copies of his newspaper
Jose Marti
he was a poet from cuba at the time of the Spanish American War, he was exiled from cuba to NYC, then went back to cuba and joined other exiles and fought against american troops, he died fighting, and became known as a martyr
President McKinley
inaugerated on march 4, 1897, he was a vet from the civil war and didnt want the country to go to war until we were absolutly forced to
The Spanish American War
started on cuba, then the us fougt cuba on the islands of the philipenes
Emilio Aguinaldo
U.S troops needed assistance from filipino rebels to attack the islands, they were lead by Aguinaldo
Teller Amendment
stated that the us claimed no sovereignty jursidictionn or control over cuba, once cuba won its independence from spain, and promised the us would leave the control over cuba to the people there
Puerto Rico
now a u.s. province, before the war was owned by the spanish
island 3500 miles sw of hawaii took this islnad on our way to the philipenes
Theodore Roosevelt
presidnet of the U.s during the later part of the SA War, he was a tough guy
Dollar Diplomacy
taft's idea to get more involved economically with the latin american countries, wanted to replace european loans with american ones
Big Stick Diplomacy
Theodore roosevelts idea to carry a big stick, and be very authoritative in latin america
The roosevelt Corollary
plan to maintain peace "on our half of the globe"
The Platt Amendment
limited cubas freedom to make treaties with other countries, authorized the us to intervene with cuban affairs with other countries, required cuba to sell land to the us for naval bases
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
leader of austria before wwi started, he was shot and the whole war was declared because of this
the idea of building of arms, when countries wanted to proove their superiorority over other countries through war, contributed to going to wwi
believed in ones nation, and felt they were superior
tripple alliance
in 1882 it was Germany, Austria Hungry and later on italy
tripple entente
UK france, and russia
Allied Powers
FR, UK, USSR, ITALY, and later on the US
Central Powers
Woodrow Wilson
the us pres at the start of wwi presented th 14 pts. wanted to start a league of nations, which would ally countries together
first communist party that came to power in russia, their leader was Vladimir Ilich Lenin, he strongly opposed war, they signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany to keep them out of war
Zimmerman note
the intercepted telegraph that germany sent to mexico, saying that they wouldsupply them with weapons and stuff if the U.S. went to war with germany
Weapons of War
germans- machine guns, british-tanks, and poison gas
Battle of Somme
took place in NE france in one day the brits lost 60,000 men to the germans, by the end of the battle, 3 million people died all together
Battle of Verdun
from feb 21 to dec 18 1916 the germans plan was to get the french to keep putting more and more men here and killing them all french were outnumbered 5-1 in one week 50% of their army mobilized here had died
Western front
trenches ran along this front of germany, lots of people died here, most horrible part of war
John J. Pershing
General of us troops in france during wwi, when they arrived they were warmly welcomed by the people of france
Selective Service Act
may 18 1917, stated that all men between 21-30 had to register with a draft board, by the end of the war 24 million men had resigered and 2.8 million had been drafted
Espionage and Sediction acts
created a law that no acts of treason may be committed and people cant go against the country in any way
The league of nations
a peace treaty among the allied nations at the time, created new countries in europe, the congress didnt like it because it took away their right to declare war
Fourteen Points
"peace with out victory, came up with by wilson, wanted to show how europeans could have everlasting peace, he was backed by the big four
Treaty of Versailles
treaty that was signed in versailles forced the germans to sign it and pay off war debt, new nations were born
Balfour Declaration
the idea to create a jewish homeland, backed by the brits
New Countries after WWI
czechoslovakia, finland, estonia, latvia, lithuania, poland,
Red Scare
the fear of communism in the us during the 20s
the "new women" of the 1920s in the us. rebels, went against traditional women behaviors
the new deal
FDR's plan to get rid get the us out of the great depresion, started abunch of relief programs
Opposers to the New Deal
Francis townshend(give 200 bucks to the old), father coughlin(anti semitest),Huey long(thought no one should have more than a million $)
Washington Confrence Agreement
5-5-3 japan had 3/5 the amount of tonage for their navy
Kellogg-Briand pact
inbetween the us and france at first to outlaw war betwn the two but then 62 nations signed it, never really worked
Manchurian Crisis
when japan invaded manchuria, first test to the k-b pact, showed that it wouldnt work
ruler of italy during wwii he was on hitlers side, he hated communists, was killed and hung in the middle of rome
Munich Conference
where they decided hitler could go into the sudatenland
the germans plan for wwii that it would be quick and they would take russia and all of europe quickly

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