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Anthro final review


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How did native people survive in the 20th century in NW coast?
On reservations and rancherias, migrant and low paying labor; Bole Maru (Dreamers) religion and Shaker church
How did native peoples respond to the 1960s civil rights movement?
Land claims, land purchases,economic development (through self determination act of 1975) regional political advocate groups, cultural associations
What is the American Indian Movement?
Native American political group, nationwide
For what did the NW Coast Indians use the forest for?
Houses, clothing, canoes, containers, masks, and totem poles and other crest art, plants for food and medicine
What was the most important subsistence activity for NW coast?
Fishing (salmon)
What did clans own in the NW coast?
Rights to resourses, and crest
How were crest dispolayed and inherited?
Through potlatching
What is potlatching?
Distribution of gifts that validate rank, also strenghtens social bonds
What did Russia want from NW coast people in the 18th and 19th century?
Sea otter pelts and provisions
What was the most important trade organization in Canada?
Hudson's Bay Company
What were important reprecussions of trade?
Important and size of potlatch increase, upward mobility (sue to emidemics) trade goods absorbed into crest art (cloth, buttons, metal knives), potato adopted into subsistense economy and trade
How did the economy change after settlers entered NW coast territory?
Commerical fishing and cannery work
What are brotherhoods?
NW coast organizations of that worked for native civil rights, economic protection and land claims
What does "the indigenization of christianity" mean?
Incorperation of native religions traditions into christian ceremonies
What was repressive about the Indian Act in Canada?
Ban on potlatching and other activities, limit legal identity as Native Americans
What differnces are there between Alaskian and Canadian life styles?
Houses: pithouse/ igloo; Village size: larger in alaska; water vessels: umiak/ kayak
What kind of religious leader did the Eskimo have?
Why did a song dual as a form of conflict managment make sense?
It prevented injury and death among hunters whose cooperation was essential for village survival
What did Hudson's Bay company want and what were the reprecussions?
Arctic fox, rifles undercut cooperation, disease
What happened to Eskimo after WWII?
US relocated them to compact settlements; wage work and welfare undermined cooperation; deterioration in health
What was the name of the nationalist Eskimo political advacy group?
Alaskan Federation of Natives
study them
What caused the rich resource in California?
different environment zones caused a surplus of food because of vertical terrain
How did they survive in California?
Substience activities- hunter, gather, fisherman; acorns seeds as food; plant fivers used for clothing, houses and blankets
What were the social organizations like in California?
permanat villiages, political autonomy independent; patrolinial decent, milineal heriditery leader
Who is a shaman?
A religiois specialist who can communicate directy with the supernatural
What were the secret societies?
Inicate youth and impresonate supernatual beings
What were the social consequences of the spanish colonization in california?
missions established and forced native labors from forced immigration of natives to these missions, populations decreased
What were the consequences of american settlements in california?
Gold rush massacured natives (genocide)
What were the affects of the Ghost dance revtaization 1870?
It promised better life
What distinguises the people of the east and west subarctic?
Language, and history of contact with europeans
What is the main subsistence activitiy in the subarctic?
Hunting for caribou and moose, fishing
What inventions helped the subarctic people travel?
Show shoes and toboggans
What art are the people of the subarctic known for?
quilting bark and hide
What kind of social organizations did the subarctic have?
small nomadic groups, bilateral decent, egaliteran social relations
How did the people of the subarctic obtain help from supernatural fores?
Sharmans contact spirit helpers (ex. shaking tent ceremony in east) individuals get helpers through vision quest
What colonial empires tracded with subarctic peoples and what did they want?
English and french; furs and beaver
What are Metis?
Desendents of marriages between europeans and native people
What were the consequences of fur trade in the subarctic?
Warfare increased, disease increased, debt to traders, dependece on european food and trade goods, political marginalization of metis
What were the consequences of the introduction of the rifle in the subarctic?
dogs for transport, pressure on game population
What is the major means of subsistence in the 20th century in the subarctic?
wage work combined with trapping subsistence by welfare payments after 1951
What are the Dene Nation and the Indians of Quebec Association and what are there goals?
Regional political advacacy group, hunting rights?
What is the basis of subsistence in the arctic?
hunting sea mammals
Why is there a connection between art and cultural revival?
central role of potlatching

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