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Modern Chinese History Midterm


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Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Hanyu Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. It was the last ethnic Han-led dynasty in China, supplanting the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty before falling to the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. The Ming Dynasty was also called The Great Ming Empire (大明帝國; Dà Míng Dìguó). Although the Ming capital, Beijing, fell in 1644, remnants of the Ming throne and power (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662.
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty, sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the Empire of the Great Qing. The Qing was the last imperial dynasty of China. Declared as the Later Jin Dynasty in 1616, it changed its name in 1636 to "Qing", and ruled all of China from 1644, until 1911. "Later Jin" is sometimes spelled "Later Jinn" to distinguish from another Later Jin Dynasty (936-946).
Confucius (traditionally September 28, 551 BCE–479 BCE)Creater of system of thought in china. There are five important Confucius relationships:
elder brother-younger brother
Qianlong Emperor
The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. , he reigned officially from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796.The Qianlong Emperor was a successful military leader, presiding over a huge consolidation in the territory controlled by the Qing dynasty.
During the time of confucius 553-479. Beleived that strict laws were needed to maintain a just society.
The Zunghou Wars
Zunghaia, Mongols had their own empire, Qianlong Emperor wipes them out. Dates: 1755&1756-1757
Key to Altishar, key to tibet.
The Xinjiang Campaigns
The Qing Empire, established by the Manchus in China, gained control over eastern Xinjiang after defeating the Dzungars in 1697. In 1755, the Manchu Empire attacked Gulja, and captured the Dzungars khan. Over the next two years, the Manchus destroyed the remnants of the Dzungars khanate. In 1759 a rebellion south of the Tian Shan mountains was put down, thus cementing Manchu rule over Xinjiang. The Manchus put the area under the rule of a General of Ili, headquartered at Gulja.
Campaigns against Jin
1747-1749 1750-1757?
The suppression of the Jinchuan hill people was the costliest and most difficult, and also the most destructive. The Jinchuan (literally "Golden Stream") was northwest of Chengdu in western Sichuan. The tribal peoples there were related to the Tibetans of the Amdo. The first campaign in 1747-1749 was a simple affair; with little use of force the Manchu general induced the native chieftains to accept a peace plan, and departed.

Interethnic conflict brought the Manchus back after twenty years. The reresulting Qing expeditionary force was forced to fight a protracted war of attrition costing the Qing treasury several times the amounts expended on the earlier conquests of the Dzungars and Turkestan. The resisting tribes retreated to their stone towers and forts in steep mountains and could only be dislodged by European cannon. The Manchu generals were ruthless in annihilating the rebellious tribes, then reorganised the region in a military prefecture and repopulated it with more cooperative inhabitants.
Gurka Campaigns
The Gurkha wars display the Qing court's continuing sensitivity to conditions in Tibet. The late 1760s saw the creation of a strong state in Nepal and the involvement in the region of a new foreign power, Britain, through their British East India Company. When the rash Gurkha rulers of Nepal decided to invade southern Tibet in 1788, they probably thought they would have British backing.

The two Manchu resident agents in Lhasa (Ambans) made no attempt at defense or resistance. Instead they took the child Panchen Lama to safety when the Nepalese troops came through and plundered the rich monastery at Shigatse on their way to Lhasa. Upon hearing of the first Nepalese incursions, the Qianlong Emperor commanded troops from Sichuan to proceed to Lhasa and restore order. By the time they reached southern Tibet, the Gurkhas had already withdrawn. This counted as the first of two wars with the Gurkhas.

In 1791 the Gurkhas returned in force. Qianlong urgently dispatched an army of 10,000. It was made up of around 6,000 Manchu and Mongol forces supplemented by tribal soldiers under the able general Fukang'an, with Hailancha as his deputy. They entered Tibet from Xining (Qinghai) in the north, shortening the march but making it in the dead of winter 1791-1792, crossing high mountain passes in deep snow and cold. They reached central Tibet in the summer of 1792 and within two or three months could report that they had won a decisive series of encounters that pushed the Gurkha armies across the crest of the Himalaya and back into the valley of Kathmandu. Fukang'an fought on into 1793, when he forced the battered Gurkhas to accept surrender on Manchu terms.

1793 Victory:
Gurka try to expand to tibet, Become tributary of China
Zheng He
Traveler to western oceans, eunuch. 1405 to 1433. Muslim. Brings back luxury goods.
The Ming Yongle Emperor
Commissioned Zheng's voyages. Opened relations with other countries.
Xiang Fei
Wife or Consort of Qianlong Emperor. Muslim, from Xinjiang
European Contact
-direct access to porcelain, silk & rhubar root
-cutout the muslim/knotian middle men
-protelitize christianity
Indian Trading System
System where goods from China traveled to Europe through india and Russia.
Canton Trade
The Canton System served as a means for China to control trade within their own country. Despite Chinese efforts to keep European traders and citizens within the area of Macao, European trade spread throughout China and threatened to virtually take over the country through the practice of Sphere of Influence imperalism. The Canton System limited the ports to which the British traders could bring in goods to China. It also forbid any direct trading between British merchants and Chinese civilians; instead, the British merchants had to trade with the Chinese merchants, who then would sell those goods to the Chinese people.

Despite Britain's growing apprehension with the Canton System, the selling of opium appeased British resentment for the system, and it remained intact until the Opium Wars.
Matteo Ricci
October 6, 1552 - May 11, 1610
was an Italian Jesuit priest whose missionary activity in China during the Ming Dynasty marked the beginning of modern Chinese Christianity. Unlike missionaries in South Asia, he found that Chinese culture was strongly tied to Confucian values and concluded that Christianity had to be adapted to Chinese culture in order to take root. Ricci was the first to translate the Confucian Classics into a western language. argued that Confucian ancestor worship was nothing more than the demonstration of remembrance and respect to ancestors: it was not a matter of paganism.
The Jiaqing Emperor
(November 13, 1760 – September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.he is remembered for his prosecution of Heshen (和珅), the infamously corrupt favorite of Qianlong Emperor (Gaozong), as well as for attempts to restore the state and curb the smuggling of opium inside China.White Lotus Rebellion (1796-1804)
Rites Controversy
early 1700's
debate over wether chinese ancestory worship was paganism or not. Pope decides against the Jesuits in 1704, saying that it is paganism and not allowed in the catholic church. This causes missionaries to have to go undercover in China.
East India Trading Company
etimes referred to as "John Company", was a joint-stock company string of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1599, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. dissolution in 1858.In the eighteenth century, opium was highly sought after by the Chinese, and so in 1773, the Company assumed the monopoly of opium trading in Bengal.Despite the official Chinese ban on opium imports, reaffirmed in 1799, it was smuggled into China from Bengal by traders and agency houses averaging 900 tons a year.
The Flint Mission
Learned Chinese and wrote a letter of tribute to the emperor who became angry with the barbarian.
Lord George Macartney
After being created Earl Macartney in the Irish peerage (1792), he was appointed the first envoy of Britain to China. He arrived in Beijing in 1793 with a large British delegation on board of a 64-gun man-of-war. He met the Emperor Qianlong, but failed in negotiating the British requests. Qianlong just didn't care.
Nurhaci was the organizer of the Eight Banners, which would eventually form the backbone of the military that would dominate the Qing empire.

In 1599, he had two of his translators, Erdeni Baksi and Gagai Jarguchi, create the written Manchu language by adapting the Mongolian alphabet.

In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself Khan (King) and founded the Jin Dynasty (aisin gurun), often called the Later Jin. He constructed a palace at Mukden (present-day Shenyang in Liaoning province). The first Jin Dynasty of the twelfth century was also formed by the Jurchen. Jin was renamed Qing by his son Hong Taiji after his death but Nurhaci is usually referred to as the founder of the Qing Dynasty.

In 1618, he commissioned a document entitled the Seven Great Vexations in which he enumerated seven grievances against the Ming and began to rebel against the Ming Dynasty. A majority of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, and Ming favorism of Yehe.
Hong Taiji
was first Khan of the Later Jin and then Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, after he changed its name, reigning from 1626 to 1643. He continued the expansion of the state in the region later known as Manchuria, pushing deeper into Mongolia and raiding Korea and Ming China. His personal military abilities were widely praised and he effectively developed the military-civil administration known as the Eight Banners or Banner system.
Banner System
different Mongol Clans were organized under colored banners. weakened clan loyalty and continued through out the Qing dynasty.
(May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over all of China, from 1661 to 1722. Had a very suspicious secession
Pillars of Qing Imperial order
1.Ethnic Balance
2.Mandate of Heaven
3.Family ideology, esp. filial piety
4.seperate speres for seperate genders
5. Civil Administration
6.Civil Service examinations
7.Ritual & Religion
8.hydrolic systems
Lady Hughes Incident
The lady hughes fired a salute and killed a couple of chinese bystanders. the Captain was forced to hand over the gunner responsible for chinese punishment.
First Opium War
fought between Great Britain and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842The Qing government attempted to end this trade on public health grounds, since numerous opium addicts were appearing in trading ports throughout China. The effort was initially successful, with the official in charge of the effort Lin Zexu, who wrote a letter to the Queen of Great Britain in an unsuccessful attempt to stop trade not beneficial to China. He eventually forced the British Chief Superintendent of Trade in China, Charles Elliott to hand over all remaining stocks of opium for destruction in May 1839.
Arthur Dent
Opium trader befor the first opium war
Captian Elliot
He was appointed Chief Superintendent of Trade and British Minister to China in 1835 and was based in Macao, helping British merchants to smuggle opium to Canton. He was involved in the First Opium War and signed the Convention of Chuenpeh in 1841, in which Qing ceded Hong Kong Island to Britain. He became the first administrator of Hong Kong, from January to August 1841.
Treaty of Nanjing
the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. 29 August 1842China agreed to cede Hong Kong Island (together with some small nearby islands) to the British Empire, and open the following treaty ports of China for foreign trade:Canton (Guangzhou), Amoy (Xiamen), Foochow (Fuzhou), Ningpo (Ningbo), Shanghai.
Also, Great Britain received:
21 million ounces silver for compensation, fixed tariffs, Extraterritoriality for British Citizens on Chinese soil, Most Favored Nation status.
Lord William Amherst
In 1816 he was sent as ambassador extraordinary to the court of China's Qing Dynasty, with a view of establishing more satisfactory commercial relations between that country and the United Kingdom. Unable to appear before the emperor
Commodore George Anson
April 23, 1697 – 1762) was a British admiral and a wealthy aristocrat, noted for his circumnavigation of the globe.
Daoguang Emperor
(September 16, 1782 - February 25, 1850) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850.Daoguang inherited a declining empire with western imperialism encroaching upon the doorsteps of China.He made many edicts against opium in the 1820s and 1830s, which was carried out by the famous Lin Zexu. Whilst Lin Zexu's effort to halt the spread of opium in China was quite successful, but with the onslaught of the First Opium War, Lin quickly fell out of favour and the Daoguang emperor suddenly relinquished Lin's authority and banished him to Xinjiang. Daoguang's decision was a blow to China's effort to halt the influx of opium and deepened the European's resolution to enter the vast Chinese market which eventually led to the First Opium War against Britain.
Treaty of Tianjin
were signed in Tianjin in June 1858, ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856-1860). France, UK, Russia, and the United States were party. These treaties opened eleven more Chinese ports (see Treaty of Nanjing) to the foreigners, permitted foreign legations in Beijing, allow Christian missionary activity, and legalised the import of opium.
Major Points:
1. Britain, France, Russia and the United States would have the right to station legations in Beijing (a closed city at the time)
2. Ten more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade, including Niuzhuang, Danshui, Hankou and Nanjing
3. The right of foreign vessels including warships to navigate freely on the Yangtze River
4. The right of foreigners to travel in the internal regions of China for the purpose of travel, trade or missionary activities
5. China was to pay an indemnity to Britain and France in 2 million taels of silver respectively, and compensation to British merchants in 2 million taels of silver.
6. The Chinese are to be banned from referring to Westerners by the character "yi" (barbarian).
The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛) (December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735.He was a tough and hard-working ruler bent on effective government at minimum expense.The Yongzheng Emperor ruled the Qing Empire for only thirteen years. Outlawed Christianity.
Robert Morrison
January 5, 1782 in Bullers Green, near Morpeth, Northumberland; died August 1, 1834 in Canton; buried in the Old Protestant Cemetery in MacaoMorrison produced a Chinese translation of the Bible. He also compiled a Chinese dictionary for the use of westerners.He took the post of Chinese Secretary and Translator to the British Factory by the East India Company in 1809 and took up legitimate residency in Canton. Only important missionary during this time
Catholic Communities
There were several catholic communities in china. They were used as bases for sermonizing. The catholics as a whole were more well equiped for missionary work in china because they were more well organized. 1810's
Taiping Rebellion
a clash between the forces of Imperial China and those inspired by a Hakka self-proclaimed mystic named Hong Xiuquan, who was also a Christian convert who had claimed that he was the new Messiah and younger brother of Jesus Christ.The rebellion's army was its key strength. It was marked by a high level of discipline and fanaticism.At its height, the Heavenly Kingdom encompassed much of south and central China, including Nanjing, with the northwards extent reaching TianjingAn attempt to take Shanghai in August 1860 was repulsed by forces under the command of Frederick Townsend Ward, a force that would later become the 'Ever Victorious Army' led by 'Chinese' Gordon. Imperial forces were reorganized under the command of Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang. The Imperial reconquest then began in earnest. By early 1864 Imperial control in most areas was well established, Hong declared that God would defend Tianjing, but as the Imperial forces approached in June he took poison.
Maio Rebellion
Against entrochment of han settlers
White Lotus Rebellion
Chinese anti-Manchu uprising that occurred during the Ch'ing dynasty.led by the White Lotus Society, a secret religious society that forecast the advent of the Buddha. Hubei, Sichuan & Shaanxi. Liu Zhu leader. Govt responseds with search &destroy tactics using banner forces. Local communities establish local militias.
Liu Zhu
leader of white lotus rebellion
Lin Qing
1813 assasinated jiaqing emperor.
Jiaqing Emperor
The Jiaqing Emperor (November 13, 1760 – September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.
Nian Rebellion
The Nien movement was formed in the late 1840's by Zhang Luoxing. the Nien initially had no clear goals or objectives aside from criticism of the Qing government. In 1855, Zhang Luoxing took direct action by launching attacks against government troops in central Chinas.The Nien fortified their captured cities and used them as bases to launch cavalry attacks against Qing troops in the countryside, prompting local towns to fortify themselves against Nien raiding parties.Qing government sent the Mongol leader General Senggelinquin, who had recently crushed a large Taiping army, to defeat the Nien. Senggelinquin's army captured several fortified cities and destoyed most of the Nien infantry, and killed Zhang Luoxing himself in an ambush.1856, Senggelinquin and his bodyguards were ambushed by Nien troops and killed, depriving the government of its best military commander. The Qing regime sent General Zeng Guofan to take command of Imperial forces, providing him with modern artillery and weapons, purchased from the Europeans at extortionate prices.
Zhang Luoxing
starter of the Nian rebellion, killed in the middle of it.
Zeng Guofan
November 21, 1811 – March 12, 1872
Creator of a more modern army in china that was based on personal ties and networking. Fought and won against the Taiping Rebellion and the Nian Rebellion.
Panthay Rebellion
1856 - 1872
separatist movement of the Hui people Du WenxiuSultan of DaliThe rebellion successfully captured the city of Dali, which became the base for the rebels' operations, and declared themselves a separate political entity from China. The rebels identified their nation as Pingnan Guo.ater, as the Qing troops began to gain the upperhand versus the rebellion, the rebellion sent a letter to Queen Victoria, asking the British Empire for formal recognition and for military assistance; the fledgling state was turned down by the British. The rebellion was eventually suppressed by Qing troops, who killed and decapitated the 'sultan'.1856 Over 80,000 Chinese Muslims were massacred in these purges
Du Wenxiu
Leader of the Panthay Rebellion. Self proclaimed sultan of Dali
Northwest Muslim Rebellion
"New Teaching" Shaanxi province qing able to control. M. flee to Gansu, Leader is Ma Huolong
Zuo Zongtang
was a gifted Chinese military leader. He served with brilliant distinction during China's most important (and the world's largest) civil war, the 14-year-long Taiping Rebellion. Governer-General of Shaanxi&Gansu
Also defeated muslims in NwMR
Yu Yue
famous teacher, official and man of letters.
China lose identiy
confusius undermined
technology using natural resources
Self Stregthening
Movement to improve the standing of China with the rest of the world:
Take only western weapons, and keep Chinese culture.
mid 1800's
Zhongli Yamen
is the name an office of external relations or Foreign Office created by the Chinese Empire in 1861 following the Convention of Peking. also known as Prince Gong (恭親王, 1833-1898) was head of the Zongli Yamen during the time of Robert Hart's leadership of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs and the two men held each other in high regard.
Prince Gong
(January 11, 1833 - May 29, 1898)
He was in charge of the government of China in the 1860s and 1870s, and is remembered for his strong ties with Westerners and his attempts at opening and modernizing China.
Interpretors college.
Study forighn language and science
sent diplomats abroad.
Guo Songtao
First chinese diplomat to the west. Became fearful for his life because of the hate he encountered upon returning.
fuzhou Shipyard
first modern shipyard and naval academy. erected by Zuo Zongtang. 1865
Li Ito Convention
brings decade of peace with korea and japan.
Sun Yat-sen
November 12, 1866–March 12, 1925
Chinese revolutionary and political leader who had a significant role in the overthrow of the Qing DynastyHe developed a political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the PeopleAlthough Sun is considered one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his life was one of constant struggle and frequent exileSun was a uniting figure in post-imperial China, and remains unique among 20th century Chinese politicians for being widely revered in both mainland China and Taiwan.
Yuan Shikai
September 16, 1859 – June 6, 1916
Presidency 1912–1915 and his self-proclamation as Emperor in 1916.
Givin presidency because of his military might and agreement with the rebels. villified in Chinese history because of the warlords and because of agreements with the west.
Three Peoples Principles
1. Nationalism
-one chinese people, freedom from domination
2. Democracy
-3 stages of revolution to reach democracy
-5 power govt
3. Socialism
-not very well defined
Song Jiaoren
(April 5, 1882–March 22, 1913)
Sung helped found and was a leading activist in the Tongmenghui, which was an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the Manchu Qing Dynasty and the formation of a republic. After the declaration of the Republic of China, Sung helped transform the Tongmenghui into the Kuomintang (or Nationalist Party).

He died of wounds from an assassination attempt on March 20, 1913 at a Shanghai rail station when he was planning to deliver speeches supporting a cabinet system. Yuan Shikai was speculated to be the instigator of this plot.
also known as the United League or the Revolutionary Alliance, was a secret society and underground resistance movement organized by Sun Yat-sen and Sung Chiao-jen in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.

The new body was created through the unification of Sun's Xingzhonghui, or Revive China Society, the Guangfuhui, or Restoration Society, and other Chinese revolutionary groups.

Combining republican, nationalist, and socialist objectives, the Tongmenghui's political platform was "to overthrow the Manchu barbarians, to restore China to the Chinese, to establish a republic, and to distribute land equally."
Lu Xun
September 25, 1881 – October 19, 1936
pen name of Zhou Shurenone of the most influential Chinese writers of the 20th century and the founder of modern baihua (白话 báihuà), or vernacular genre. Highly influential in 20th century Chinese history, he discredited Confucian values and denounced Chinese society as a cannibalistic one.
Chen Duxiu
Chen was a co-founder of the Communist Party of China in 1921.He was its first Chairman, first General Secretary and an educator, philosopher, and politician. His ancestral home was in Anqing (安慶), Anhui, where he established the vernacular Chinese newspaper New Youth.
Hu Shi
December 17, 1891-February 24, 1962
Hu soon became one of the leading and influential intellectuals during the May Fourth Movement and later the New Culture Movement. He quit New Youth in the 1920s and published several political newspapers and journals with his friends. His most important contribution was the promotion of vernacular literature (Baihua) to replace classic literature (see Classical Chinese): the significance of this for Chinese Culture was great -- as John Fairbank put it, "the tyranny of the classics had been broken"
Cai Yuanpei
January 11, 1868 - March 5, 1940
Chinese educator and the chancellor of the Peking Universityn 1898, he became involved in administering institutes and became: * Superintendent of Shaoxing Chinese-Western School (紹興中西學堂監督)
* Head of Shèng District Shànshān College (嵊縣剡山書院院長)
* Director-Teacher of the Special Class of Nanyang Public School (南洋公學特班總教習)
made the college a place for revolutionary thinkers. Cai returned to China in 1916 to became the Chancellor of Peking University the next year. It was during his tenure at Peking University that he recruited such famous thinkers (and future CCP leaders) to the school as Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao
Zhang Zongchang
(1881 – 1932), nicknamed the 'Dogmeat General', was a Chinese warlord in Shandong in the early 20th century.He kept some thirty to fifty concubines of different nationalities, who were given numbers since he could not remember their names. he was appointed military governor of Shandong, which he ruled as warlord until May 1928. In 1928 his army was finally defeated by the Nationalists. Zhang was spared and given permission to leave the country. In 1932, however, he was assassinated by the son of one of his many victims.
Deng Yingchao
February 4, 1904 - July 11, 1992
was the Chairwoman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference from 1983 to 1988 and a member of the Communist Party of China.Deng participated as a team leader in the May Fourth Movement, where she met Zhou Enlai (周恩來). They married on August 8, 1925 in Tianjin.
Zhou Enlai
(March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his deathZhou first came to national prominence during the May Fourth Movement of 1919pon his return to China, he served as the chairman of the political department at the Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou when it was founded in 1924.
Oct Revolution (Russia)
The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. The October Revolution was led by Bolsheviks under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky and marked the first officially Communist revolution of the twentieth century, based upon the ideas of Karl Marx.
-still have state after revolution
-dictatorship of the proletariate
View of history
-primitive communism>slave society>feudalism>capitolism>socialism>
China did not fit in view-whole world in revolution.
Li Dazhou
First to make a big deal about marxism. said china was part of the world proletiariate. 1919
Organization of communists. Communists International. used to unite communists throughout the world.
State ownership of means of production. centralized, disiplined party of professional revolutionaries. democratic cntralism
individual cells
issues discussed in party, results will be passed up to higher levels leaders make decision.
work to organize industrail working class join with labor, front organizations.
Empress Dowager Cixi
was a powerful and charismatic figure who was the de facto ruler of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, ruling over China for most of the period from 1861 to her death in 1908.Historians consider that she probably did her best to cope with the difficulties of the era but her conservative attitudes did not serve her well and the Western powers contiued to take advantage. Cixi violated the normal succession and had her three year old nephew named the new heir. The two Dowager Empresses continued as regents until the death of Ci'an, the other Dowager Empress, in 1881, when Cixi became the de facto ruler of China.When Emperor Guangxu (光绪皇帝), the nephew, attained maturity, Cixi retired to the country, though she kept herself informed through a network of spies. After China lost the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Guangxu implemented many reforms in what came to be known as the "Hundred Days' Reform." In reaction, Cixi worked with the military and conservative forces to stage a coup and take power again as active regent, confining the emperor to his palace.The next year, Cixi supported the forces behind the Boxer Rebellion, an anti-reform and anti-foreign rebellion. . When foreign troops retaliated by entering the Forbidden City and capturing Peking (Beijing), Cixi accepted the offered peace terms. As appeasement, she eventually implemented the reforms that she'd stopped her nephew from instituting.
Late Dynastic Reform
central tehme of reforms; Centrallization.
lension: manchu cnetral govt vs han provicial elite.
-administrative reforms
-military reforms
--yuan shikai
-educational reforms
--new school system 1905 examinations cancelled.
-social reform
--permission for intermarriage
--stop footbinding
--ending slavery
-constitutional reforms
--constitutional monarchy
Green Gang
a criminal organization operating in Shanghai in the early 20th century. This gang was a secret society which included many successful bussinessmen. It managed, under its leader Du Yuesheng, to control the criminal activities in the entire city of Shanghai. The Green Gang was also involved in the Chinese Civil War, responsible for the White Terror massacre of approximately 5,000 pro-Communist strikers in the City of Shanghai on April 1927, which was quietly approved by Nationalist leader General Chiang Kai-Shek who granted Du Yuesheng the rank of General in the Nationalist army as a result of the massacre.Supported Chiang Kai-shek.
Song Meiling
March 5, 18981 – October 23, 2003
was one of the three Soong sisters and described as "the one who loved power"Soong May-ling met Chiang Kai-shek in 1920. Since he was eleven years her elder, already married, and a Buddhist, May-ling's mother vehemently opposed the marriage between the two, but finally agreed after Chiang showed proof of his divorce and promised to convert to Christianity. Madame Chiang initiated the New Life Movement and became actively engaged in Chinese politics.She was a member of the Legislative Yuan from 1930 to 1932 and Secretary-General of the Chinese Aeronautical Affairs Commission from 1936 to 1938. In 1945 she became a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang. As her husband rose to become Generalissimo and leader of the Kuomintang, Madame Chiang acted as his English translator, secretary and advisor. During World War II, Madame Chiang tried to promote the Chinese cause and build a legacy for her husband on par with Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. Well versed in both Chinese and western culture, she became popular both in China and abroad.
Zhang Xueliang
June 3, 1901 – October 15, 2001
The Japanese were concerned that Manchuria would declare support for Chiang Kai-shek and believed that Zhang Xueliang, who was an opium addict, would be much more subject to Japanese influence. Surprisingly, the younger Zhang proved to be more independent than anyone had expected. He overcame his opium addiction and declared his support for Chiang. In order to rid his command of Japanese influence he had two prominent pro-Tokyo officials executed in front of the assembled guests at a dinner party in January 1929. Zhang also tried to eliminate Soviet influence from Manchuria, but relented in the face of a Soviet military build-up. At the same time, however, he developed closer relations with the United States.In 1930, when Feng Yü-hsiang and Yen Hsi-shan attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek’s government, Chang stepped in to support the Nanjing government against the northern Warlords in exchange for control of the key railroads in Hebei Province and the customs revenues from the port city of TianjinFollowing Chiang Kai-shek's release, the Young Marshal was tried, convicted, and sentenced to ten years in prison. Chiang Kai-shek intervened and Zhang was placed under house arrest. In 1949, Zhang was transferred to Taiwan where he remained under house arrest, spending his time studying Ming dynasty poetry. Only in 1990, after the death of Chiang's son, Chiang Ching-kuo, did he gain his freedom. Zhang was the world's longest-serving political prisoner.
Chiang Kai-shek
October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925.Chiang led China in the Second Sino-Japanese War, during which Chiang's stature within China weakened but his international prominence grew. During the Chinese Civil War (1926–1949), Chiang attempted to eradicate the Chinese Communists but ultimately failed, forcing his government to retreat to Taiwan, where he continued serving as the President of the Republic of China and Director-General of the KMT for the remainder of his life.Government was VERY corrupt. Tutelage to china.
Hong Xiuquan
January 10, 1812-June 1, 1864
was a Hakka Chinese Christian who led the Taiping Rebellion and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, in which he was known as the Heavenly King (天王/Tīan wáng).
Yong Xiuqing
(died September 2/3, 1856), organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion.Yang was a salesman of firewood in Guangxi province before he joined the rebellion In 1850 he began to claim that he could miraculously heal true believers. He was an early participant in the rebellion and rose quickly to prominence; in 1851, when Hong Xiuquan took the title of Heavenly King for himself, Yang was made commander-in-chief of the army. Yang was further named "East King", in keeping with three other leaders of the rebellion who were given titles as "kings" the four quarters of the Heavenly Kingdom. Yang devised an extensive network of spies to root out the intrigues of loyalists in the kingdom.Said God spoke through him. This, and Yang's conspiracies for greater power raised Hong's ire, and in 1856, Yang was murdered by Hong's followers. In the three months that followed, Hong slaughtered Yang's family and thousands of the dead East King's adherents. The fortunes of the Taiping Rebellion subsequently declined as the rebellion's leaders became involved in internecine conspiracies and intrigues.
Taiping Tianguo
Beleivers of the Taiping rebellion
Second Opium War/Arrow war/ Anglo-Chinese war
a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860.The 1850s saw the rapid growth of imperialism. Some shared goals of the western powers were to expand their overseas markets and establish new ports of call. The French Treaty of Huangpu and the American Wangxia Treaty both contained clauses allowing renegotiation of the treaties after twelve years. In an effort to expand their privileges in China, Britain demanded the Qing authorities renegotiate the Treaty of Nanjing in 1854 citing their most favored nation status. The British demands included opening all of China for British merchants, legalizing the opium trade, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties, suppression of piracy, regulation of the coolie trade, permission for a British ambassador to reside in Beijing and for the English-language version of all Treaties to take precedence over the Chinese.

The Qing court rejected the revision demands from Britain, France, and the USA.Treaty of TientsinIn 1859, after China refused to allow the establishment of embassies in Beijing as agreed to by the Treaty of Tientsin, a naval force under the command of Admiral Sir James Hope shelled the forts guarding the mouth of the Peiho river. It was damaged and withdrew under the cover of fire from a naval squadron commanded by Commodore Josiah Tattnall.
Convention of Peking
After the Xianfeng emperor and his entourage fled Peking, the June 1858 Treaty of Tientsin was finally ratified by the emperor's brother Prince Gong in the Convention of Peking on October 18, 1860, bringing The Second Opium War to an end.The content of the Convention of Peking includes:

1. China's recognition of the validity of the Treaty of Tientsin
2. Opening Tianjin as a trade port
3. Cede No.1 District of Kowloon (south of present day Boundary Street) to Britain
4. Freedom of religion established in China
5. British ships were allowed to carry indentured Chinese to the Americas
6. Indemnity to Britain and France increasing to 8 million taels of silver respectively.
7. Legalization of the Opium Trade
Sino-Japanese War
(August 1, 1894 - April 1895) was a war fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan over control of Korea. The principal result was a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan.Korea, under the Joseon Dynasty, had traditionally been a tributary state to China's Qing Dynasty. In 1875, after exerting pressure, China allowed Japan to recognise Korea as an independent state. However, China continued to assert influence over Korea, despite Japan's moves to dominate it. Public opinion in Korea was split, with conservatives wanting to retain a traditional relationship with China, while reformists wanted the country to establish a closer ties with Japan and modernize.Following the assassination of a pro-Japanese reformist in 1894, a Korean religious sect, the Donghak, launched the Donghak Peasant Revolution. The Korean government requested help from China in suppressing the rebellion. The Chinese government informed the Japanese government of its decision to send troops to the Korean peninsula. This is in accordance with the Sino-Japanese Convention of Tientsin of 1885 in which the two sides agreed to: (a) pull their expeditionary forces out of Korea simultaneously; (b) not send military instructors for the training of the Korean army; and (c) notify the other side beforehand should one decide to send troops to Korea. Implicit in this arrangement was that any troops so deployed were to be withdrawn as soon as possible (a logical corollary to clause b).
Treaty of Shimonoseki
was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. The peace conference took place from March 20 to April 17, 1895.The Treaty ended the First Sino-Japanese War (aka. (mainly British Histories) "Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)") in favour of Japan, the clear victor. In the treaty China recognized the independence of Korea and renounced any claims to that country. It also ceded the Liaodong peninsula (Then known to the Western Press as Liaotung — the southern portion of Fengtian, now part of modern Liaoning province), the islands of Taiwan (Formosa) and the Pescadores to Japan. China also paid Japan a war indemnity of 200 million Kuping taels, and opened various ports and rivers to international entry and trade.
Guangxu Emperor
The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian (載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China, his reign lasting from 1875 to 1908, but in practice ruling from 1890 to 1898. He initiated the Hundred Days' Reform but was abruptly stopped when Empress Dowager Cixi launched a coup in 1898. His reign name means "The Glorious Succession".
The Boxer Uprising
a violent movement against non-Chinese commercial, political, religious and technological influence in China during the final years of the 19th century, from November 1899 to September 7, 1901[1]. By August 1900 over 230 foreigners, thousands of Chinese Christians, an unknown number of rebels, their sympathizers and other Chinese were killed in the revolt and its suppression.The effect on China was a weakening of the dynasty, although it was temporarily sustained by the Europeans who were under the impression that the Boxer Rebellion was anti-Qing. China was also forced to pay almost $333 million in reparations. China's defenses were weakened, and the aunt of the reigning Guangxu Emperor, who was the actual person in command of the country at that time, realized that in order to survive, China would have to reform, despite her previous opposition.
Kang Youwei
a Chinese scholar and political reformist. He called for an end to property and the family in the interest of Chinese nationalism. Due to his desire to end the traditional Chinese family structure, he is regarded as an advocate for women's rights in China.He was a mentor of Liang Qichao, and the two of them participated in the Hundred Days' Reform. Both fled abroad when the program was unsuccessful.

Chinese government officials ordered him executed by the method of ling chi or "death by a thousand cuts", and he fled to Japan. After China became a republic in 1912 he remained an advocate of constitutional monarchy, and for this aim he launched a failed coup d'état in 1917. General Zhang Xun and his queue wearing soldiers occupied Beijing and declared the restoration of Puyi and the Qing dynasty on July 1. The affair was a huge miscalculation as the nation was very anti-monarchist. On July 12, Duan Qirui easily took the city. Kang became regarded as an anachronism.
Guandong Army
a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). It takes its name from the Kwantung Peninsula where it was based. Headquartered in Xinjing (modern Changchun), it became the largest and most prestigious command in the IJA. Many of its personnel, such as Chief of Staff Tojo Hideki, were promoted to high positions in both the military and civil government.Stationed int Guandong. The unit was originally established in 1906 as the Kwantung Garrison to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway.
Mukden Incident
The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, also called the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria when a section of railroad, owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway, near Mukden (today's Shenyang) was blown up. Japan's military accused Chinese dissidents of the act, thus providing an excuse for the Japanese annexation of Manchuria.Created Manchukuo
he Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) or Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The party was founded in 1921, and fought the Kuomintang during the Chinese Civil War, which ended with the party's victory in the Chinese Revolution. With more than 70 million members, the CPC is the largest political party in the world.
Zhu De
Zhū Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: Yùjiē 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 – July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. He is regarded as a founder of the Chinese Red Army (the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army) and the tactician who engineered the revolution from which emerged the People's Republic of China.
New Life Movement
The New Life Movement (Chinese: 新生活運動) was set up by Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong May-ling in February 1934, to promote traditional Confucian social ethics, while rejecting individualism and Western capitalistic values. It also aimed to build up morale in a nation that was besieged with corruption, factionalism, and opium addiction. Some goals included courtesy to neighbors, following rules set by the government, keeping streets clean, conserving energy, and so forth. Chiang Kai-shek used the Confucian notion of self-cultivation and correct living for this movement. An additional goal was to rally the Chinese people against the Communists. While some have praised the movement for its role in raising the quality of life somewhat during the war with Japan, other have criticized it for its lofty goals that were out of touch with the suffering of the general populace.

The New Life Movement was considered part of the program to carry out the "principle of the people's livelihood" (minsheng zhuyi) in Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People.
Blue Shirts
Bureau of investigation for Chinese communists. sercret service. Dai Lee in charge.
Song Qingling
January 27, 1892 - May 29, 1981
one of the Soong sisters—three sisters whose husbands were amongst China's most significant political figures of the early 20th century. Also known as Madame Sun Yat-sen, she was described as the "one who loved China". She married Sun Yat-sen in Japan on October 25, 1915 after he divorced Lu Muzhen. Ching-ling's parents greatly opposed the marriage, as Dr. Sun was 26 years her senior. After Sun's death in 1925, she was elected to the Kuomintang (KMT) Central Executive Committee in 1926. However, she exiled herself to Moscow after the expulsion of the Communists from the KMT in 1927.
Song Ailing
Soong Ai-ling (宋藹齡 Pinyin: Sòng Àilíng), or Eling Soong (June 14, 1890 - October 18, 1973), eldest of the Soong sisters, was the wife of H. H. Kung, who was the richest man in the early 20th Century Republic of China. Let me guess "the one who loved money" Created problems when her husband was head of treasury. Investment problems.
Tse-ven Soong, or Soong Tzu-wen (Chinese: 宋子文, pinyin: Sòng Zǐwén; 1894 - 1971), a prominent millionaire businessman and politician in the early 20th century Republic of China, had Charlie Soong as a father and the Soong sisters as siblings.

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