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Chapter Twenty-One (Age Of Metternich) Vocabulary


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Classical liberalism
Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosophes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its political goals were self government (concept of the general will); a written constitution; natural rights (speech, religion, press, property, mobility); limited suffrage; its economic goals were laissez-faire (free trade - no government interference in the workings of the economy).
Jeremy Bentham
(1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number. He said the government should not interfer in people's lives except to bring order and harmony. His work was Introduction of the Principles of Morals and Legislation.
John Stuart Mill
(1806-1873) Said it was the role of the government to provide happiness for the people. He worked for the rights of the poor and of people. Later in his life, ---- argued for the equitable distribution of property among people. He wrote Utilitarianism; On Libery; Principles of the Political Economy; and On the Subjugation of Women.
In its purest and most simple form, ----------- was a peoples feeling of unity against an absolutist or against oppression from outsiders. ----------- was very often fueled by religion, geography, culture or history that people had in common with each other. During the nineteenth century many ------------ were also liberals.
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815.
In the nineteenth century ------------ advocated a slower, more gradual process of change. Change should not come by way of destruction of the tradition or the old order. ------------- emphasized the importance of tradition.
Edmund Burke
(1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in Franch (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
Prince Clemens von Metternich
(1773-1859) Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna.
Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.
Karl Sand
A German student and member of the Burschschaft, was executed for his murder of the conservative playwright August von Kotzebue in 1819. In the eyes of many young German nationalist he was a political martyr.
Carlsbad Decree
(1819) Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities.
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speaking states except Austria by 1844.
Grross deutsch
Members of the Frankfurt Parliament favored the inclusion of Austria in a united Germany
Klein deutsch
Members of the Frankfurt Parliament favored the exclusion of Austria in a united Germany
Frederick William IV
(1840-1861) King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848. He refused to accept "a crown from the gutter" referring to the overtures of the National Assembly.
Combination Acts
(1799 and 1800) Made trade unionism illegal
Coercion Act 1817
Measure to temporarily suspend Habeas Corpus and extended existing laws against seditious acts.
Peterloo Massacre
On August 16, 1819 a mass meeting in Manchester at Saint Peter's Field to demand the reform of Parliament. Royal troops and local militia moved into the audience. The result was panic and death - at least eleven people in the crowd were killed and scores injured.
Six Acts 1820
Attempted to remove instruments of agitation from radical leaders - forbade large unauthorized meetings, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited the training of armed groups - and provided the authorities with new powers - speedy trials for political agitators and search of homes in disturbed areas.
Repeal of Test Acts
(1828) Allowed Protestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office.
Daniel O'Connell
Lead Irish nationalists of the Catholic Association to agitate for Catholic emancipation. In 1828, -------- secured his own election to Parliament, where he could not legally take his seat.
Catholic Emancipation Bill
(1829) Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time. This was a liberal measure passed for the conservative purpose of maintaining order in Ireland.
Reform Bill of 1832
The Great ------ ---- gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs. It increased the number of voters by 50%.
Rotten boroughs
Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless send representatives to Parliament.
Abolished in the British Empire (1833).
Factory Act of 1833
Created factory workday for children between 9-18 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child laber under 9 - factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
Poor Law of 1834
Legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid. It forced the destitute to enter into workhouses where conditions were purposely miserable to discourage people from seeking assistance.
People's Charter of 1838
Sought universal male sufferage, the secret ballot, abolition of property requirements for MP, payment of MP, equal electoral districts and yearly Parliamentary elections. This led to Chartism which centered on the belief that problems of the working class could be corrected by changes in the political arrangement of the country.
Corn Laws
Repealed in 1846. They had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristocratic landholdings.
French Charter
(1814) The constitution of the French restoration and the ascent of Louis XVIII that provided for a hereditary monarchy and a bicameral legislature. There was religious toleration, but Roman Catholicism was designated as the official religion of the nation. Most importantly it promised NOT to challenge the property rights of the current owners of land that had been confiscated from aristocrats and the church. Ultraroyalism sought to repudiate some of its components.
Quadruple Alliance
Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; France joined in 1818.
Concert of Europe
It prevented one nation from taking a major action in international affairs without the assent of the others. Initially it sought to maintain a balance of power against new French aggression and against the military might of Russia. In time it sought to maintain conservative domestic governments and regulate internation relations to maintain peace.
Holy Alliance
An alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles.
Protocol of Troppau
(1820) Asserted stable governments might intervene to restore order in countries experiencing revolution.
Monroe Doctrine
(1823) U.S. prohibits further colonization and intervention by Europeans in the Americas.
"The Eastern Question"
What should the European powers do about Ottoman inability to assure political and administrative stability in its possessions in and around the eastern Mediterranean?
Treaty of Adrianople
(1829) Stipulated Britain, France, and Russia would decide the future of Greece and granted Russia territories in what is now Romania.
Treaty of London
(1830) Declared Greece an independent kingdom.
A Serbian nationalist, who negotiated greater administrative autonomy from the Ottomans. In 1830 the Ottoman sultan formally granted independence to Serbia. Expanding boundaries created tensions with Austrians and the Muslim minority became restive.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Led a slave revolt that resulted in Haitian independence in 1804.
Jose de San Martin
Became the liberator of Peru and supported Bernardo O'Higgins in the independence of Chili.
Simon Bolivar
Liberator of Venezuela and much of Latin America. In his capture of Bogita, capital of New Granada [including modern Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Panama] to secure his base.
Father Miguel Hidalgo and Father Maria Morelos
Radical priests who led rebellions of repressed groups to attain social and land reforms in New Spain - MEXICO. Both were executed.
Augustin de Iturbide
Declared independence of Spain in 1821. Soon after he was declared emperor. He established a government resistant to any significant social reform.
Dom Pedro I
The son of King John VI of Portugal was crowned emperor of an independent Brazil in 1822. Within a year he abdicated but his song Pedro II succeeded him as emperor and reigned until 1889, when Brazil became a republic.
Grand Duke Constantine
Brother of Alexander I denied access to the throne for marrying a woman not of royal blood. He was the commander of Russian forces in occupied Poland.
Russian revolutionaries, the Moscow regiment, who called for constituational reform and the installation of Constantine as czar in 1825.
"Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism"
A program called Offical Nationality where the church provided the basis for morality and education, championed the unrestrained power of the czar and glorified Russian nationality.
Organic Statue
(1832)Declared Poland to be an integral part of the Russian Empire. Though his statue guaranteed certain Polish liberties, these were ignored.
Charles X
Brother of Louis XVIII. He was an ultraroyalist, and a believer in the divine right of kings who ascended the throne in 1824. He enacted reactionary policies.
Four Ordinances
Issued by Charles X on July 25, 1820 restricting the freedom of press, dissolving the recently elected Chamber of Deputies, restricting the franchise and calling for new elections. This royal coup provoked decisive popular political actions that led to the abdication of Charles X on August 2 and his forced exile in England.
July Monarchy
The ascent of Louis Philippe as "king of the French." The government was more liberal and definitely anticlerical. Socially it was conservative with little or no sympathy for the lower or working classes.
Francois Guizot
(1787-1874) Chief minister under Louis Philippe. Guizot's repression led to the revolution of 1848 and the abdication of Louis Phillipe.
Louis Blanc
(1811-1882) Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It was the first step toward a future socialist society. Advocated the principle of "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs." His supporters successfully pressure the provisional government to set up national workshops to provide jobs for the unemployed.
Louie Napoleon Bonaparte
(1808-1873) Nephew of Napoleon I; he came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848. In 2852, seeking to emulate his uncle, he made himself Emperor Napoleon III.
Lord Palmerston
British foreign minister who brokered the recognition of Belgium as an independent and neutral state in 1830.
Louis Kossuth
A Magyar nationalist and member of the Hungarian Diet who called for independence in 1848. The fear of Magyarization united other national groups to crush the rebellion.
"Divide and conquer"
A policy used by the Germans to smother Czech nationalism.

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